For details of the simulation method adopted for the analysis please see . Finally it is interesting to ask how the sensitivity changes with the various values of the NSI coupling strength and in that context Fig. For the details of the sim- ulations please see . Thus, one must construct a more complete formalism of nuclear dynamics which 1.
One way to consider this problem is using Quantum Monte Carlo QMC  computational methods to solve the nuclear many-body problem. Nuclei are systems made of strongly correlated nucleons described by a nuclear Hamiltonian consisting of two- and three-body potentials which correlate nucleons in pairs and triplets.
These studies indicate that two-body physics, namely two-body correlations and associated two-body cur- rents describing the interactions of the external probe with pairs of correlated nucleons are essential to explain the available scattering data. Here, t i is the kinetic energy of a single nucleon, and vi j is a two-nucleon interaction.
In addition, one 1. This approximation allows one to fully retain two-body dynamics. With supercomputers, one may calculate these densities for the quasielastic energy trans- fer region for all permissible total and relative nucleon pair momenta, creating large tabulated data sets.
These response densities have multiple facets, and can be broken down into particu- lar nucleon pairs pp, np, nn and their dependencies on one- and two-body physics extracted for a given momentum transfer. Scaling these cross sections and their underlying dynamics to larger nuclei has not yet been investigated. Preliminary design of this generator module is complete, which will now be briefly described; coding work will begin soon.
This means one must use other information to pass necessary event configurations to GE- NIE, such as single nucleon position and two-nucleon separation  distributions to per- mit semi-torroidally degenerate triangulation in the nucleus. In concert with the tabulated nuclear response densities containing nucleon pair momentum information for given values of momentum transfer, and assuming a uniform or Guassian two-body angular distribution, via Laws of Cosines, one can reconstruct the semi-final state in the nucleus before transport through the intranuclear cascade; more elegant methods involving a geometric interpretation of the responses may also be possible.
A goal of this comparison will be to understand dependence of two-nucleon final state multiplic- ities on initially correlated intranuclear systems; this could directly constrain free parameters in the intranuclear cascade in GENIE. The hope is that this more complete simulation can help clarify some 1.
The magenta energy deposits are caused by neutrons undergoing multiple scatterings; the orange color denotes energy originally carried by the prompt charged pion.
The figure is taken from Ref. These experiments will pin down the last unknown neutrino mixing parameters, i. They will also qualitatively improve our test of the 3-flavor neutrino oscillation paradigm, as shown in previous sections of this report. As liquid argon technology is still in its infant stage, much of its capability is not known precisely. For many experimental inputs relevant for phenomenological work, e.
It is therefore important in phenomenological works to choose experimental inputs carefully. It may even be beneficial to vary experimental inputs in a reasonable range, and demonstrate how these inputs affect physics sensitivities. One can assess many experimental inputs based on a few considerations.
Figure All charged particles lose energy continuously by ion- ization. These ionized electrons get Clockwork - Theenigmaproject - Eightfold EP (CDr) in a detector and collected and they are the direct observables. Occasionally, protons, neutrons, and pions could hadronically interact with an argon nu- 1. POT stands for protons on target. Taken from . This happens at about 40, 10 andin Fig. This process not only produces lower-energy particles, it is also an important channel for energy loss, i.
This interac- tion also has an almost particle-independent and energy-independent rate, with an interaction length of about 1 m. Neutrons are difficult to detect. Occasionally, a neutron may have a hard interaction and knock out an energetic proton, which can be easily detected.
But often, neutrons bounce around in liquid argon and only leave some de-excitation gammas magenta points in Fig. The detectability of these soft gammas is highly uncertain. Though there are many subtleties in how well a detector can perform, basic physics con- siderations can offer a guideline. Detection thresholds much higher than the scale are likely to be conservative, and thresholds even lower than the scale are likely to be aggres- sive, etc. Rapid progress is made towards fully understanding liquid argon technologies.
Until then, it is important for everyone to be conscious about experimental inputs. In fact, a given measured value of CP phase could very well be a hint of new physics [, ]. The need to devise ways to distinguish between the standard paradigm and new physics scenarios has been extensively discussed.
Hence it is desirable to design strategies to disentangle effects due to NSI from standard oscillations. The background events are similar for all the four cases and are shown as grey shaded region. So, when the large CP asymmetry prominent at higher energies at the probability level is folded with the standard LE flux to generate the events, the difference between standard and new physics is masked because of the falling flux.
It is therefore worthwhile and timely to ask if we can suitably tap the large signal of CP asymmetry at higher energies using higher energy beams.
For more details, we refer the reader to . We discuss the impact of using different beam tunes and run time combinations on the separability of physics scenarios. The backgrounds are shown as grey shaded region. The left column is for an equal 1. The solid and dashed lines assume a beam power of 1.
The dotted black line corresponds to an ME option upgraded to 2. The left column shows 5 years of neutrino and 5 years of anti-neutrino run times, while the right column depicts the case of 10 years of neutrino run time only. The plot is taken from . We wish to stress that the fraction curves in Fig. We have considered the standard LE as well as ME beam tunes.
Our main results are summarized in Fig. More specifically, the region enclosed by these contours depict the regions where there is SI-NSI degeneracy for those pair of parameters.
Below, we discuss some noteworthy features as can be observed from Fig. We note that use of different beam tunes ME in conjunction with the LE beam offers visible improvement of results shrinking of contours in these pairs of parameters.
We next consider the remaining panels in which we see that there is very little or no improvement of results after using the ME beam along with the LE beam.
This extra solution comes due to the marginalisation over the opposite mass hierarchy. Similar degeneracy has also been observed in previous studies: in [17,30,34] in the context of NSI and also in  in the context of Lorentz violating parameters. For details, we refer the reader to . These numbers quantify the improvement over the LE only option when the ME beam tune is used in conjunction with the LE beam tune in these panels.
The energy range of the measured astrophysical neutrinos is shown in yellow. The large volumes required to measure the astrophysical flux make this detectors sensitive to atmospheric neutrinos, especially at high energies. IceCube has been taking data for almost ten years in the final configuration and is able to measure neutrinos with energies from few GeV to more tens of PeV.
This makes IceCube the perfect experiment to perform precision measurements of the high energy atmospheric neutrino flux. Our current knowledge of neutrino oscillations can be well understood by a the coher- ent evolution of a three dimensional quantum system propagating macroscopic distances. This interference phenomena is very sensible to small parameters such the mass differences 7.
For neutrinos that travel in matter the so called matter potential due to the forward scat- tering should be added to the Hamiltonian.
Nevertheless one may use atmospheric neu- trino data to constrain non standard interactions of neutrinos with ordinary matter NSI. Figure from ; see also Ref.
The first result using IceCube data with a preliminary study of the systematic errors was published by , giving compati- ble results with the latter published analysis with more accurate error treatment. This include one year of data for high energy green , three years for the low energy using DeepCore red  and the analysis by Super-Kamiokande blue .
For this reason the high energy bound in Fig. In principle astrophysical neutrinos may be a good way to test NSI. The possibility of using the flavor ratio observable of the astrophysical neutrino flux was shown by . This is still far from having sensitivity due to the low statistics and the need to measure the flavor content in different zenith directions.
Therefore a modification of the matter potential such NSI may modify the result for the sterile searches relaxing the bound . This apparent degeneracy can be broken since a large value for NSI is indeed moving the resonance in to the region not analyzed between the low energy and high energy in Fig. The interplay between NSI and sterile neutrinos in this limit is well studied and shows that sterile neutrino is essentially equivalent to non-unitarity propagation or equivalently a modification of the matter poten- tial .
The last one being for oscillations equivalent to a NSI. The effect of the sterile 1. Examples of constraints for averaged out heavy neutrinos in this regime can be [,].
All of them are equivalent and can be re-parametrized as a NSI analysis. Is interesting to notice that this bounds both rely in the matter potential since this effects cancels in vacuum. This equivalence between heavy sterile neutrinos and NSI may be broken if the sterile states are not kinematically allowed for some experiments or energy range.
In the case of IceCube, with a large energy range to explore NSI, a tension between low and high energies may reveal the existence of a sterile state that becomes kinematically allowed in the un-analyzed energy region between the low and high energy data samples Fig. A full energy range analysis by IceCube to search for NSI or sterile neutrinos would be eventually needed to disentangle NSI from sterile neutrinos with different phenomenological implications in both low and high energies.
The discovery of neutrino oscillations has therefore been a clear hint to the existence of physics beyond the SM. Almost every attempt to account for neutrino masses necessitates the existence of yet unobserved particles or yet unobserved interactions in the neutrino sector.
Therefore, we expect the appearance of non-standard neutrino interactions in those models. In  we restricted our model to diagonal couplings, although there are reasons to con- sider couplings connected to the flavor sector. Constraints on new physics of the form of eq. Such an interaction could also, in principle, be tested in the dense neutrino environment of a core-collapse supernovae. The new strongly interacting mode is identified by the diagonal white stripe through the orange CMB constrained region.
Such a strong interaction modifies the allowed parameter spaces for various cosmological parameters, in particular enlarging the allowed space for nsthe spectral index, and r, the tensor to scalar ratio. As these parameters are the key observables from models of inflation, it is necessary to consider this strongly interacting neutrino mode before ruling out models. Two extremely well motivated models of inflation are Natural Inflation  which is related to a shift symmetry arising from an axion, and Coleman-Weinberg inflation [, ] which is a guaranteed 1-loop contribution.
Natural inflation, in general, predicts non-zero and measurable tensor modes, while Coleman-Weinberg inflation predicts no tensor to scalar modes, but a somewhat low spectral index. Past constraints on ns and r without this strongly interacting neutrino mode have put these models of inflation, along with others, in moderate tension with data . A separate similar analysis also included BAO data and the local H0 inference .
The motivations for such a simple model are clear as they span a large number of seemingly unrelated open questions in particle physics and cosmology. It is then interesting to check if such a model can be experimentally tested.
In light of 1. The blue band is the broadest range of energies that IceCube could possibly measure the astrophysical neutrino flux. The red dashed line indicates the limit from cosmology . Confirming such a dip, however, is extremely challenging for several reasons. The first is that the statistics at IceCube are poor and unlikely to improve enough without IceCube-Gen2, moreover, the energy resolution makes identifying features in the spectrum quite difficult.
A deeper problem, however, is that distinguishing a dip feature from an astrophysical signal due to multiple sources would be extremely difficult. Finally, such a dip could also be due to resonant scattering off dark matter. It may still be possible, in principle, to identify such a model at IceCube, if multiple dips were identified at resonant energies corresponding to distinct neutrino masses. This, if measurable, would provide a nearly unambiguous signal of both the cosmic neutrino background, and a new mediator at the MeV scale.
While our assumptions of the previously existing constraints have tended towards the op- timistic, a newer analysis took a more stringent view in interpreting strongly interacting neu- trino models . In conclusion, we find that there is a rich and complicated phenomenology involved with new neutrino interactions in the early universe. A strongly interacting mode, somewhat sur- prisingly, is allowed by the data.
While numerous constraints exist from BBN and lab measurements of decays, some parameter space still exists. Finally, it may be possible to test nearly all of the parameter space in the future using IceCube. There is also an interesting connection to dark matter and cosmology. We have reviewed in this document a representative collection of these topics. The field has 1. We hope the community addresses some of these issues. The work of M-CC was sup- ported, in part, by the U.
National Science Foundation under Grant No. DG is also supported by the U. IM is supported by the U. Department of Energy Grant No. MT acknowledges support in part by the DOE grant de-sc References  L. Wolfenstein, Neutrino oscillations in matter, Phys. D 17,doi Barger, R. Phillips and K. Whisnant, Solar-neutrino solutions with matter- 1. D 44,doi Guzzo, A. Masiero and S.
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Heeck, Neutrinophilic nonstandard interactions, Phys. Shoemaker, Lepton flavor violating non-standard interactions via light mediators, J. B 67,doi Mohapatra and G. D 23,doi Foot, H. Lew, X. He and G. Joshi, See-saw neutrino masses induced by a triplet of leptons, Z. My name is Mrs. Rachel Alex, and I am from Singapore. A couple of weeks ago My friend visited me and along our discussion she told me about MRS.
My name is melissa. No one could have ever made me believe that the letter I'm about to write would actually one day be written. I was the world's biggest skeptic. I never believed in magic spells or anything like this, but I was told by a reliable source a very close friend that Dr theo gorge is a very dedicated, gifted, and talented person, I was one of the best things I have ever done.
My love was in shambles; I had been through two divorces and was on the brink of a third. I just could not face another divorce, and I wanted to try harder to make our relationship work, but my husband did not seem to care. And he brake up with me again. However, until recently the answers had been indiscernible.
And where does it come from? She illuminates concepts that rational science cannot. I hope this book fulfills its mission as a guiding light to you as it did for me.
The sole reason we are thrown into this world is for us to be a step closer to finding the truth about our real self. We have an important mission to accomplish. To begin with, you have to climb up the moral ladder, a stage which will prepare your mind to be right and ready for the subsequent phase: climbing the meditation ladder. Should you want to take part in this life journey in search of your true self and the ultimate Clockwork - Theenigmaproject - Eightfold EP (CDr), there are five requirements in the moral ladder.
Due to the lengthy contents of the 5th requirements, I decided to separate The User Guide to Life into two volumes instead of having one thick book like the previous publication.
This book needs to be tackled with a very open-minded attitude especially if you are a non-Buddhist and not familiar with the karma and rebirth concepts. This also applies to the karma and rebirth concepts which are the knowledge results from having seen the ultimate truth. Furthermore, there are all kinds of possibilities out there in the cosmos which have yet been found, due to the absence of the right tool for the right job, but those phenomena are certainly out there all right.
We must admit that there are many unanswerable questions in the reality of life. We can hide behind the curtain of science and do our best to rationally explain both natural phenomena and social events that may cause human catastrophe. Should we have the answers, they will, at least, allow us to let go and move on with our lives and above all for the sake of our own sanity. The trouble is we are all potential victims to the casualties of life as we have no way of knowing what is waiting for us beyond the calm and extraordinary placid corridor.
One minute everything is absolutely fine but the next minute life is everything but normal. For those reasons, I strongly believe that humanity urgently needs to know the karma and rebirth concepts with the new approach I offer to you in this book.
It will help you to understand the root cause of all the unexplainable events that you may come across. There is more harm in not to believe than to believe — at least for the benefit of your inner peace. One of the main reasons that causes mayhem in global society right now is that people do not believe their good and bad actions will bear consequences.
This is the only way we can retrieve moral conscience back to humanity — or am I just dreaming?! Well, I can confirm to you that heaven and hell will not disappear into thin air just because you or vocal famous people think they are total nonsense.
You must be courageous to take a lead as far as climbing the moral ladder is concerned. I hope this book and its prequel will offer you clear enough guidelines so that you can find your true self and the truth. I alone will take the full responsibility for any errors or over-sights that may be contain in these pages. My gratitude also goes to all my Thai staffs who have belief in me and helped me in organising my work in Thailand.
All their hard works are very much appreciated and have enabled you to get hold of this book. I could not possibly do it without those kind people. The three phases As far as the rebirth subject is concerned, there are always three groups of people: the believers, the non-believers and the non-bothered.
This is the first time that I have seriously sat down and talked about the law of karma and the cycle of rebirth at great length. The reason is that I too was not convinced in the past. As a matter of fact, I ought to divide my belief into three phases. Firstly, when I was a child, I wholeheartedly believed in the law of karma, heaven and hell.
That was because my parents, teachers, monks and elders told me so. If I did good, I would go to heaven and if I did bad, I would go to hell.
I, therefore, did my very best in being a good girl. My well-rooted childhood belief about the karma became weaker as I grew up. The second phase began when I was an undergraduate.
Just like most students, I had to learn to think rationally. My scientific way of thinking, in return, gradually eclipsed my deeply-rooted belief in heaven and hell.
The breaking point was when I knew Suan Mokkh and the teacher whose works have changed my life for the better. Buddhadasa of Suan Mokkh: a forest monastery in the south of Thailand.
That was the saying I first heard from Suan Mokkh. What I learnt from the Ven. Teacher was that both heaven and hell were right in the centre of the mind. Peace and happiness are heaven: the result of good deeds whereas greed, anger, pain and turmoil depict hell: the result of bad deeds.
Everyone should, therefore, pay more attention to the present by keeping up with the good deeds so that they can maintain a well-balanced and happy mind.
For those reasons, I presumed that there was no such thing called heaven or hell. As the Ven. Nevertheless, I stayed with that belief for quite a number of years and admittedly I had my doubts from time to time. In denying the existence of heaven and hell, I had to deny many incidents and teachings existing all throughout the Pali canon1. These six groups of sentient beings have been referred to and repeated countless times all throughout the Buddhist texts.
But where would they come from if there are no such things called heaven and hell? If I remember correctly, this belief was still with me in the early nineties when I was writing my first book 'Dear Colin, what is the meaning of life? Do you think they really exist? He did not pester me into a heated debate which he could have done because he had too much respect for me.
That incident with my nephew, however, was the beginning of the ending of my second stage, my belief in the non-existence of heaven and hell was shaken right to the core. Then came my Eureka experience inonce the ultimate goal of life was clear, the loose puzzles manage to find their places and everything began to make a lot more sense to me. Nevertheless, I can recall the day when all doubt concerning the rebirth was suddenly lifted.
I was, at the time, in my garden doing my morning Tai Chi exercises when I saw a little robin land on the grass just a few feet away from me. I stopped to look at this little bird hopping around on the lush green lawn looking for food. All of a sudden, out came a revelation!
For the first time in my life I could say I knew rebirth was for real, and I could clearly see that all things were brought together by the law of karma, including that little fragile robin in front of me. I even scolded myself for overlooking this bit of knowledge the size of a mountain!
That instantaneous wisdom caused my heart to fill with overwhelming joy and happiness. My doubts on these two main subjects — the ultimate truth and the rebirth — had finally vanished for good. Once the wisdom arrived and ignorance vanished, I can easily summarise with just a few plain words that the cycle of rebirth is the prison of life where we are trapped whereas knowing the ultimate truth is the jail breaking!
This self-realisation is the third and the final phase of my belief in the law of karma which has given me enormous strength and allowed me, for the first time, to proudly talk about them in the open as I am doing now in this book. What I am about to say is merely scratching the surface, trying to make it easy for you to understand your present predicament and know how to move from this point onward so that you can at least secure yourself a good rebirth, better still is to end rebirth altogether.
Then I would like you to think of all kinds of mysteries that are still hidden in this gigantic universe. Apart from the laws of physics which work anywhere in the world and probably the whole universe, there are also many other natural laws that are waiting to be discovered once the right tool comes along. One of these hidden natural phenomena is the law of karma. On the night of his enlightenment, the Buddha had actually unlocked the secret of this universal law of nature.
He found out how this law of deed has power over people very much like how gravity, weather and climate influences our way of life. In the same way that we acknowledge the mechanism of gravity and weather as fact, so did the Buddha to the law of karma. This is the same approach that had led me to my Eureka experience and the subsequent revelation in my garden.
It means that if you want to understand and tackle the factual law of karma and the ultimate truthyou have no choice but to deploy your skill in vipassana — using the right tool for the right job!
To start, you must know that the natural law of karma brings about the cycle of rebirth. So, we have to deal with these two subjects together. Karma means action, deed. The law of karma is the law of action which works scientifically just like other natural laws in the sense of having a cause and an effect. If you do good deeds, you receive good results, if you do bad deeds, you receive bad results. It is as simple as that. These are some knotty details that you can bypass. However, the good and bad results of your present actions are the causes that generate your rebirth.
As for what and where you are going to be born in your future existence depends entirely on what you have put in and will put in during this lifetime. So, if you can understand how karma works, you are very fortunate in the sense that you can choose where to go in your future life. Comparatively speaking, you have the choice to design, build and decorate your future house exactly the style you wish to live in. This is the general idea of how the law of karma and samsara work.
Not every action is called karma. The main factor which makes up karma is volition; you must have the intention and desire to do something which is either good or bad.
This intention is normally embedded within your thoughts. Your intentional thoughts are, therefore, classed as mental actions which subsequently materialise into verbal actions speech and physical actions accordingly. In this case Mandy does not create any karma that will give result. So, Tim has no patience with any cats. The minute he sees a cat passing through his garden, he will rush out, pick up a stone and throw it at the cat.
Clockwork - Theenigmaproject - Eightfold EP (CDr) happens from the moment he sees the cat, straight away, he links the cat with the mess he — or Mandy rather — has to clean up. His deliberate thoughts mental. In between watching the cat and the rushing into the garden, Tim might swear verbal karma at the cat too.
Tim has created bad karma which will give result because there are two completed factors — intention and action. This whole process goes for good karma too. You may watch the news and see the overwhelming suffering among people in disaster areas. Many people watch the news and do not think any further. The timely fact about a natural catastrophe in another country is merely news. They would carry on with their lives as normal.
However, you watch the news and you are moved by the large scale of suffering of those people, then you think seriously how you could help them mental karma. You then discuss about how you want to help the victims with your family verbal karma. Finally, decision is made.
You pick up the phone and give your credit card details so that your money will be donated to the set-up fund physical karma. You have done good karma and it will award you with a good result.
You may have a kind nature and do not like to hurt any one or anything. One morning, you walk along your garden path and before your realise it, you have stepped on a slug or a worm quite unintentionally.
In such a case, your action is not a complete karma because you had no intention. You may still bear the result of that action but it is not Clockwork - Theenigmaproject - Eightfold EP (CDr) severe as having the intention of hurting. A teacher compares this event to when you go into a shop and accidentally knock a glass off the shelf and break it. Under such circumstance, you may Clockwork - Theenigmaproject - Eightfold EP (CDr) may not have to pay depending on the owner of the shop.
If the owner is kind, he may say it is an accident and let you off without having to pay for it. However, some owners may ask you to cover the cost of the damage. In such cases where you accidentally kill an animal, you may or may not suffer the result because, without the intention, the karma is not completed. In Buddhist cultures, you are taught to ask for forgiveness ahosikarma right away. If the animal killed forgives you because you did not have the intention to kill, your karma will be defunct or void.
I will elaborate this issue in later chapter. There is a great difference between deliberately killing an ant, a pig, a cow and a person. It is not about taking away a small life such as an ant or a big life such as a person, because they equally have a life all the same.
The difference lies in the length of time that your mind has to hold onto that intention until you finish the action. During that length of time, your mind will constantly keep record of the event and will cast shadows of either good or bad. If you hold it lightly, the line you produce is weak. If you hold it firmly, the line is clearer.
If you press the pencil harder, you leave a much deeper mark and may dent the paper. Instead, I will try to make it easy for you. By doing so, my explanation may not agree with the strict Buddhist scholars, especially those who study the Abhidhamma which is known as the metaphysics of Buddhism.
But if this can make you believe in the law of karma and aim for Nirvana, I think it is a good enough reason for giving me a pardon. The moment you want to kill until the end of the killing may last about 30 seconds or less. So, the law of karma works according to that length of time you invest.
Killing bigger animals such as a pig or a cow takes much longer to complete from the moment of intention to the end. You have to put more effort into it.
Killing a pig or a cow by hand, involves fighting, stabbing, drowning and so on before the animals reach unconsciousness. All those actions are done with full intention which is full blown karma. That one hour is the length of time that the law of karma works and will certainly cast a deep shadow and bring a more severe result in the future.
Now, killing a person is even more difficult in the sense that the killing intention lasts much longer in your mind. A pre-meditated murder needs a great deal of hateful thinking and planning which is mental karma. Your mind has to be wrapped by anger, hate, vengeance or greed — whatever reasons that make you want to kill someone!
This can last for days, months or even years. Although the actual killing may last a couple of minutes by means of shooting, several minutes by means of stabbing, days by means of poisoning and torturing. The previous length of time which brought you to that final evil episode will all be accounted for according to the law of karma. Therefore, all these various degrees of harshness when you commit karma will affect the result that you will redeem in the future.
The consequence of karma will take effect from the moment you complete the killing onwards. Judging from the comparison of holding a pencil and drawing a line, as far as the mental after-effect is concerned, you suffer less by intentionally killing an ant, you suffer much more when you kill a pig or a cow, and you suffer even more when you kill a person.
Your mental suffering is the immediate result of karma that you have committed. Breaking excellent moral human instinct is an extremely serious crime very bad karma against the almighty Mother Nature and bad consequences is imminent! This makes you see how ignorant and misguided the world politic is. This massive global misdirection of life has plunged the world into deeper complexity and invite endless turmoil and suffering to humankind — the consequence of collective bad karma.
The trouble is that the result of karma will not stop there at your state of mental suffering after a sin committing; it will also bear results in the after life, based on the severity of your karma.
You may wonder in the case of some criminal who went on a killing rampage over innocent people without feeling any guilty conscience or showing an ounce of remorse, how can we justify their actions? Such broken down mind is extremely destructive and beyond repaired. In the Buddhist sense, such twisted mind is considered being wrapped by the worst type of sin, spiritual.
Someone once said that eating a fish is sinner than eating meat because eating meat is about sharing a life of one cow with many others, while consuming a fish is eating a whole life by yourself. This case, you must judge from the above example of the time that you take to kill. Killing a fish especially by means of netting does not require as much effort as killing a cow.
Therefore, the harshness of karma is less than killing a pig or a cow. My mom had been a vegetarian for over 40 years before she passed away. She knew that her children could not turn vegetarian overnight so she told us to leave the big animals out first by stopping eating beef, then pork and then poultry.
She said that she did not mind if we ate just fish. I only understand now why she said that. This is definitely not an apology for killing a big life or a small life because they are lives all Clockwork - Theenigmaproject - Eightfold EP (CDr) same.
It has everything to do with how the law of karma works. In this case, it might be the traces of karma that you will share along with the meat killing business, or something similar. So, I suppose all meat eaters have to take some share of the blame sin. Still, we cannot be totally white under such circumstances. Buddhist monks who eat meat also have rules. Buddhist monks in Thailand are supposed to be easy and take what they are given. The Buddha set down the rule that a monk must not eat meat if they know who killed the animal.
They must not drop a hint to anyone to buy meat and cook it for them either. When they eat food whether it is meat or vegetables, they must contemplate and view the food in front of them as the four elements of earth, fire, water and wind.
Without such contemplation whether eating meat, fish or vegetables, monks are considered to have violated their monastic rules. The qualities of different people to whom you do karma are also accounted for as far as karmic consequences are concerned. The result of such karma is so immense that there is no word for it. Therefore, you can see that the bad karma done to parents and genuine monks who may or may not have reached some level of holiness, are considered hideous karma that will bear weighty and immediate results.
There are five monstrous karma about which the Buddha warned people not to cross the line. The other reason was to avoid having people doing anything wrong to holy people for fear of hefty karmic result.
The trouble is holy persons do not walk around with a halo above their heads like artists depict in painting so that people can single them out and not sin against them. Not to mention the lower level of holiness, even a fully enlightened person looks absolutely normal like everyone else.
The only difference is that their minds partially to wholly detach from all worldly values, depending on their level of holiness.
Today there is no Buddha around to confirm that such a person has attained some level of holiness so that people would know not to wrong them. It just also happens that genuine holy people do not boast of their spiritual achievement because they normally have very small sized egos or none at all.
There is no doubt that even today there are still holy people around, especially in the Buddhist countries, and a great number of them could be lay people some of whom could be our closed relatives, friends, neighbours or even someone we sit next to on a bus, a train or a plane!
So, to avoid committing the worst karma, we should play it safe by always treating people with kindness and respect, especially among the vipassana practitioners whether they be monks or lay people. That is because vipassana practitioners have a much better chance to be holy persons than non-practitioners.
The reverse should also be noted: the good karma done to parents, moral people, or holy persons will give immeasurable results. Thai and Burmese devout Buddhists who aim to reach Nirvana in one of their future lives will show an amazing generosity to monks whom they suspect may be holy, because they know that such good karma will be accounted for their reaching enlightenment in future lives.
This is the root cause of the well known giving spirit among the Buddhists in Thailand and Burma. Once you have the general idea of how the law of karma works, the next thing that you ought to understand is that karma is not moral justice. It is not a case of having an. There is no one who makes judgement over the deeds of beings. I suppose even God may get very confused since everyone has different combination of both good and bad deed in them; moral and immoral mixture is not a black and white matter.
So, it makes better sense to leave the karma settlement to an unbiased law of nature, just like the law of gravity, it can, at least, be guaranteed that there is no confusion, miscarriage of justice or prejudice involved. With that said, Buddhism still does have words such as gods and deities in the teachings. The terms gods, deities, devas, heavenly or celestial beings and brahmas in Buddhism refer to the beings in the upper realms or heavens who are still in the same predicament as us humans.
Inevitably, celestial beings are still subject to rebirth once their good karma has finished bearing fruit and the bad karma catches up with them. They too can fall from graceful heaven and be reborn as a human or in one of the three lower states: the animal kingdom, hungry ghost and demon world, and hell.
I will go into details later about the beings of different realms. Gravitational forces cannot pick and choose where to work, gravity works according to the dictating of the natural law, so does karma. If you do good, you receive good results; if you do bad, you receive bad consequences, which seems to me the fairest system.
Neither the good and bad consequences are given as reward or punishment by someone with invincible power. This moral law of justice operates naturally on its own accord, and it governs the whole universe wherever there are sentient-beings. The Buddha does not make up the law of karma; he has nothing to do with the making of it. His role was merely to find out for us how the law of karma works following his ultimate enlightenment in the same way that Issac Newton found out the law of gravity.
Once the Buddha had found out, he then told us about it so that we can do right according to the law. All these troubles can be prevented should people believe in this moral law of action! In the same way that you cannot defy gravity, neither can you defy the law of action. You cannot wipe away the karmic result. Good results always come from your good karma and vice versa just like apple seeds yield apple fruits. You will have to face the music once the karmic result catches up to you.
It is like you have dropped a glass on the floor and broken it. You can pick the pieces up and superglue them together, but no matter how well you try, you cannot conceal the damage. You might think that you have mistreated your parents when you were a teenager. Now that you are more mature and feel guilty of your wrongdoing. So you treat your parents exceptionally well now in hope that your good deeds might wipe away your previous bad deeds. Most people think so.
But according to the law of karma, your bad deeds towards your parents during your teenage years have been recorded and will definitely give bad. At this point, I want you to see the definite nature of this moral law governing the whole of the universe. As a matter of fact, the Buddha does explain and give an analogy regarding the law of karma in the most scientific way.
This is his answer to the question posted by the head of the village in Nalanda province. Suppose a man likes to kill, lie, steal, commit adultery, use malicious, spiteful and rude language, backbite, talk nonsense and have ill will, hatred and negative views.
Then you go to gather all the people from your village and surround this nasty man. Then you all dance and pray for this unworthy man. Do you think the big stone can be surfaced by doing so? The Buddha also said that in the same way that praying could not sink oil into water, neither could it make a good man go to hell. Having said all of the above, I might not have given you much hope if you happen to have a long list of bad deeds in your personal database.
And no matter how good we are, we all make mistakes one way or another at some time in our lives. I do not believe that there is anyone who can be totally good or totally bad. We all have a different combination of goodness and badness in us. So, if you really want to undo your previous wrongdoings, there is a way that you can get around to it. Also, if you are a Christian and believe in the repenting of sin, how can you reconcile this universal law with sin repentance?
I will talk about it later under the topic of adding more water to salt. The Buddha said that beings are the owners of their deeds, heirs of their deeds, have deeds like their parents, their kin, their refuge; karma alone is our property, our heritage; deeds divide beings into lowliness and supremacy.
The Buddha said that life is thrown around by the law of karma. It is our karmic properties that lead us to our next rebirth and keep the samsara going.
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