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Get to Know Us. Make Money with Us. Amazon Payment Products. Let Us Help You. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Many master horizons and layers that are symbolized by a single capital letter can have one or more lowercase-letter suffixes.

The following rules apply:. A B horizon that is gleyed or that has accumulations of carbonates, sodium, silica, gypsum, salts more soluble than gypsum, or residual accumulations of sesquioxides carries the appropriate symbol: g, k, kk, n, q, y, yy, z, or o. If illuvial clay is also present, the symbol t precedes the other symbol, e.

Commonly, a horizon or layer designated by a single letter or a combination of letters has to be subdivided. For this purpose, numbers are added to the letters of the horizon designation.

These numbers follow all the letters. Within a sequence of C horizons, for example, successive layers may be designated C1, C2, C3, etc. These conventions apply regardless of the purpose of the subdivision. In many soils a horizon that could be identified by a single set of letters is subdivided to recognize differences in morphological features, such as structure, color, or texture. These divisions are numbered consecutively, but the numbering starts again at 1 when any letter of the horizon symbol changes, e.

The numbering of vertical subdivisions within consecutive horizons is not interrupted at a discontinuity indicated by a numerical prefix if the same letter combination is used in both materials, e. During sampling for laboratory analyses, thick soil horizons are sometimes subdivided even though differences in morphology are not evident in the field.

These subdivisions are identified by numbers that follow the respective horizon designations. For example, four subdivisions of a Bt horizon sampled by cm increments are designated Bt1, Bt2, Bt3, and Bt4. If the horizon has already been subdivided because of differences in morphological features, the set of numbers that identifies the additional sampling subdivisions follows the first number.

For example, three subdivisions of a Bt2 horizon sampled by cm increments are designated Bt21, Bt22, and Bt The descriptions for each of these sampling subdivisions can be the same, and a statement indicating that the horizon has been subdivided only for sampling purposes can be added.

Numbers are used as prefixes to horizon designations specifically, A, V, E, B, C, and R to indicate discontinuities in mineral soils. These prefixes are distinct from the numbers that are used as suffixes denoting vertical subdivisions.

Symbols that identify discontinuities are used only when they can contribute substantially to an understanding of the relationships among horizons. The stratification common to soils that formed in alluvium is not designated as a discontinuity, unless particle-size distribution differs markedly from layer to layer i. If a soil formed entirely in one kind of material, the whole profile is understood to be material 1 and the number prefix is omitted from the symbol.

Similarly, the uppermost material in a profile consisting of two or more contrasting materials is understood to be material 1 and the number is omitted. Numbering starts with the second layer of contrasting material, which is designated 2. Underlying contrasting layers are numbered consecutively. Even when the material of a layer below material 2 is similar to material 1, it is designated 3 in the sequence; the numbers indicate a change in materials, not types of material.

Where two or more consecutive horizons have formed in the same kind of material, the same prefix number indicating the discontinuity is applied to all the designations of horizons in that material, for example, Ap-E-BtBtBtBC. The suffix numbers designating vertical subdivisions of the Bt horizon continue in consecutive order across the discontinuity. However, vertical subdivisions do not continue across lithologic discontinuities if the horizons are not consecutive or contiguous to each other.

If other horizons intervene, another vertical numbering sequence begins for the lower horizons, for example, A-C1-CBwBwCC2. If an R layer is below a soil that formed in residuum and if it is similar to the material from which the soil developed, the number prefix is not used.

The prefix is used, however, if it is thought that the R layer would weather to material unlike that in the solum, e. A buried genetic horizon designated by the suffix b requires special consideration.

It is obviously not in the same deposit as the overlying horizons. Some buried horizons, however, formed in material that is lithologically like the overlying deposit. In this case, a prefix is not used to distinguish material of the buried horizon.

If the material in which a horizon of a buried soil formed is lithologically unlike the overlying material, the discontinuity is indicated by a number prefix and the symbol for the buried horizon also is used, for example, Ap-Bt1-Bt2-BC-C-2ABb-2BtbBtbC.

Discontinuities between different kinds of layers in organic soils are not identified. In most cases, such differences are identified by letter suffixes if the different layers are organic materials e.

Oa or by the master horizon symbol if the different layers are mineral or limnic materials e. If two or more horizons with identical number prefixes and letter combinations are separated by one or more horizons with a different horizon designation, identical letter and number symbols can be used for those horizons with the same characteristics.

The prime symbol is not used unless all letter and number prefixes are completely identical. Because it has two Bt master horizons of different lithologies, the Bt horizons are not identical and the prime symbol is not needed. The prime symbol is used for soils with lithologic discontinuities if horizons have identical designations.

Vertical subdivisions of horizons or layers number suffixes are not taken into account when the prime symbol is assigned. These same principles apply in designating layers of organic soils. The prime symbol is used only to distinguish two or more horizons that have identical symbols. The prime symbol is added to the lower layers to differentiate them from the upper layers. This material has been moved horizontally onto a pedon from a source area outside of that pedon by purposeful human activity, usually with the aid of machinery or hand tools.

Number prefixes may be used before the caret symbol to indicate the presence of discontinuities within the human-transported material e. The following examples illustrate some common horizon and layer sequences of important soils subgroup taxa and the use of numbers to identify vertical subdivisions and discontinuities.

Transitional horizons, combination horizons, and the use of the prime and caret symbols are also illustrated. Soils with cyclic or intermittent horizons pose special challenges in describing soil profiles.

The profile of a soil having cyclic horizons exposes layers whose boundaries are near the surface at one point and extend deep into the soil at another. The aggregate horizon thickness may be only 50 cm at one place but more than cm at a place 2 meters away.

The cycle repeats. It commonly has considerable variation in both depth and horizontal interval but still has some degree of regularity. When the soil is visualized in three dimensions instead of two, some cyclic horizons extend downward in inverted cones. The cone of the lower horizon fits around the cone of the horizon above. Other cyclic horizons appear wedge-shaped. The profile of a soil having an intermittent horizon shows that the horizon extends horizontally for some distance, ends, and reappears again some distance away.

For example, the horizons of Turbels, which by definition are subject to cryoturbation, are irregular, intermittent, and distorted. A B horizon interrupted at intervals by upward extensions of bedrock into the A horizon is another example. The distance between places where the horizon is absent is commonly variable but has some degree of regularity. It ranges from less than 1 meter to several meters. For soils with cyclic or intermittent horizons or layers, a soil profile at one place may be unlike a profile only a few meters away.

Standardized horizon nomenclature and pedon description forms are not well suited to soil profiles with such variability. When describing these types of soils, it is important to make notes on the individual horizons to record the nature of the variations. Photographs and diagrams can also be used to convey the information.

Descriptions of the order of horizontal variation as well as vertical variation within a pedon include the kind of variation, the spacing of cycles or interruptions, and the amplitude of depth variation of cyclic horizons.

A boundary is a relatively sharp plane-like division or a more gradual transitional layer between two adjoining horizons or layers. Most boundaries are zones of transition rather than sharp lines of division. Boundaries vary in distinctness and topography. Distinctness refers to the thickness of the zone within which the boundary can be located.

The distinctness of a boundary depends partly on the degree of contrast between the adjacent layers and partly on the thickness of the transitional zone between them. Distinctness is defined in terms of thickness of the transitional zone as follows:. Very abrupt Very abrupt boundaries occur at some lithologic discontinuities, such as geogenic deposits or strata tephras, alluvial strata, etc.

They can also occur at the contacts of root-limiting layers. Examples are duripans; fragipans; petrocalcic, petrogypsic, and placic horizons; continuous ortstein; and densic, lithic, paralithic, and petroferric contacts.

Abrupt soil boundaries, such as those between the E and Bt horizons of many soils, are easily determined. Some boundaries are not readily seen but can be located by testing the soil above and below the boundary. Diffuse boundaries, such as those in many old soils in tropical areas, are very difficult to locate.

They require time-consuming comparisons of small specimens of soil from various parts of the profile to determine the midpoint of the transitional zone. For soils that have nearly uniform properties or that change very gradually as depth increases, horizon boundaries are imposed more or less arbitrarily without clear evidence of differences. Topography refers to the irregularities of the surface that divides the horizons fig.

Terms for topography describe the shape of the contact between horizons as seen in a vertical cross-section. Even though soil layers are commonly seen in vertical section, they are three-dimensional. Terms describing topography of boundaries are:.

The thickness of the horizon or layer is recorded by entering depths for the upper and lower boundaries. For horizons or layers with significant lateral variation in thickness, the average horizon thickness may also be noted. In many soils, the morphology of the uppermost few centimeters generally from less than 1 to about 18 cm is strongly controlled by antecedent weather and by soil use. A soil may be freshly tilled and have a loose surface one day and have a strong crust because of a heavy rain the next day.

A soil may be highly compacted by livestock and have a firm near surface in one place but have little disturbance to the uppermost few centimeters and be very friable in most other places. The following discussion provides a set of terms for describing subzones of the near surface and, in particular, the near surface of tilled soils.

The horizon designations or symbols for describing these near surface subzones are Hollow Of Winter - Various - Air Texture Volume II (CD). The suffix d is used for root-restrictive compacted layers; master horizon symbol V may be used to designate some layers with a dominance of vesicular pores.

Surface horizons can be subdivided using standard horizon designations to record the subzones. An example horizon sequence could include Ap1 a mechanically bulked subzoneAp2 a water-compacted subzoneand Bd a mechanically compacted subzone. Descriptions of these separations should also identify the kind of subzone described. Very thin surface crusts less than about 1 cm thick are generally described as a special surface feature rather than as a separate layer.

In this section, five kinds of near surface subzones are presented and the general processes leading to their formation are described. The five kinds of subzones are: mechanically bulked, mechanically compacted, water compacted, surficial bulked, and crust either biological or chemical. Figure shows stylized profiles depicting various combinations of these subzones.

Identification of subzones is not clear cut. Morphological expression of bulking and compaction may be quite different among soils depending on particle-size distribution, organic matter content, clay mineralogy, water regime, or other factors. The distinction between a bulked and compacted state for soil material with appreciable shrink-swell potential is partly based on the potential for the transmission of strain on drying over distances greater than the horizontal dimensions of the larger structural units.

In a bulked subzone, little or no strain is propagated; in a compacted subzone, the strain is propagated over distances greater than the horizontal dimensions of the larger structural units. Many soils have low shrink-swell potential because of texture, clay mineralogy, or both.

For these soils, the expression of cracks cannot be used to distinguish between a bulked state and a compacted state. The distinction between compaction and bulking is subjective.

It is useful to establish a concept of a normal degree of compaction of the near surface and then compare the actual degree of compaction to this. The concept for tilled soils should be the compaction of soil material on level or convex parts of the tillage-determined relief. The soil should have been subject to the bulking action of conventional tillage without the subsequent mechanical compaction.

The subzone in question should have been brought to a wet or very moist water state from an appreciably drier condition and then dried to slightly moist or drier at least once. It should not have been subject, however, to a large number of wetting and drying cycles where the maximum wetness involved the presence of free water.

If the soil material has a degree of compaction similar to what would be expected, then the term normal compaction is used. The mechanically bulked subzone has undergone, through mechanical manipulation, a reduction in bulk density and an increase in discreteness of structural units, if present. The mechanical manipulation is commonly due to tillage operations. Rupture resistance of the mass overall, inclusive of a number of structural units, Hollow Of Winter - Various - Air Texture Volume II (CD) typically loose or very friable and is occasionally friable.

Individual structural units may be friable or even firm. Mechanical continuity among structural units is low. Structure grade, if the soil material exhibits structural units less than 20 mm across, is moderate or strong. Strain that results from contraction on drying of individual structural units may not extend across the structural units. Hence, internally initiated desiccation cracks may be weak or absent even though the soil material in a consolidated condition has considerable shrink-swell potential.

Cracks may be present, however, if they initiate deeper in the soil. The mechanically bulked subzone is depicted in figure as the first layer in profile a and the second layer in profiles b and c.

The mechanically compacted subzone has been subject to compaction, usually due to tillage operations but also by animals. Commonly, mechanical continuity of the fabric and bulk density are increased.

Rupture resistance depends on texture and degree of compaction. Generally, friable is the minimum class. Mechanical continuity of the fabric permits propagation of strain that results on drying only over several centimeters. Internally initiated cracks appear if the soil material has appreciable shrink-swell potential and drying was sufficient. In some soils this subzone restricts root growth. The suffix d may be used if compaction results in a strong plow pan.

The mechanically compacted subzone is the lowest layer of all profiles shown in figure The water-compacted subzone has been compacted by repetitive large changes in water state without mechanical load, except for the weight of the soil.

Repetitive occurrence of free water is particularly conducive to compaction. Depending on texture, moist rupture resistance ranges from very friable through firm. Structural units, if present, are less discrete than those in the same soil material if mechanically bulked. The subzone generally has weak structure or is massive. Mechanical continuity of the fabric is sufficient for strain that originates on drying to propagate appreciable distances.

As a consequence, if shrink-swell potential is sufficient, cracks develop on drying. In many soils, the water-compacted subzone replaces the mechanically bulked subzone over time.

The replacement can occur in a single year if the subzone is subject to periodic occurrence of free water with intervening periods of being slightly moist or dry.

The presence of a water-compacted subzone and the absence of a mechanically bulked subzone is an important consequence of no-till farming systems. The water-compacted subzone is depicted in figure as the second layer of profiles d and e. The surficial bulked subzone occurs in the very near surface. Continuity of the fabric is low. Cracks are not initiated in this subzone but may be present they may initiate in underlying, more compacted soil.

The subzone forms by various processes. Frost action under conditions where the soil is drier than wet is one process. Pronounced shrinking and swelling in response to drying and wetting which is characteristic of Vertisols is another process. The surficial bulked subzone is depicted in figure as the first layer of profiles c and e. A crust is a surficial subzone, typically less than 50 mm thick but ranging to as much as mm thick, that exhibits markedly more mechanical continuity of the soil fabric than the zone immediately beneath.

Commonly, the original soil fabric has been reconstituted by water action and the original structure has been replaced by a massive condition. While the material is wetraindrop impact including sprinkler irrigation and freeze-thaw cycles can lead to reconstitution. The crust is depicted in figure as the Hollow Of Winter - Various - Air Texture Volume II (CD) layer of profiles b and d.

Crusts may be described in terms of thickness in millimeters, structure and other aspects of the fabric, and consistence, including rupture resistance while dry and micropenetration resistance while wet. Thickness pertains to the zone where reconstitution of the fabric has been pronounced.

The distance between surface-initiated cracks described later in this chapter may be a useful observation for seedling emergence considerations. If the distance is short, the weight of the crust slabs is low. Soil material with little apparent reconstitution commonly adheres beneath the crust and is removed with the crust. This soil material, which shows little or no reconstitution, is not part of the crust and does not contribute to the thickness.

Biological crustswhich consist of algae, lichens, or mosses, occur on the surface of some soils, especially in some relatively undisturbed settings, such as rangelands. These crusts are easily diminished or destroyed by disturbance. Chemical crusts commonly occur in arid environments where salty evaporites accumulate at the surface. They include crusts consisting of mineral grains cemented by salts. Structural crusts form from local transport and deposition of soil material, commonly in tilled fields.

They have weaker mechanical continuity than other crusts. The rupture resistance is lower, and the reduction in infiltration may be less than that of crusts with similar texture. Raindrop impact and freeze-thaw cycles contribute to the formation of structural crusts.

Restriction means the incapability to support more than a few fine or very fine roots if the depth from the soil surface and the water state other than the occurrence of frozen water are not limiting. For cotton, soybeans, and other crops that have less abundant roots than grasses have, the very few class is used instead of the few class.

The restriction may be below where plant roots normally occur because of limitations in water state, temperatures, or depth from the surface. The root-restricting depth should be evaluated for the specific plants important to the use of the soil.

These plants are indicated in the soil description. The root-restriction depth may differ depending on the plant. Root-depth observations should be used to make the generalization of root-restricting depth. If these are not available commonly because roots do not extend to the depth of concern then inferences may be made from morphology. A change in particle-size distribution alone e. Some guidelines for inferring physical restriction are given below. Very shallow This section discusses particle-size distribution of mineral soil separates.

Fine earth indicates particles smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Fragments 2 mm or larger consist of rock fragmentspieces of geologic or pedogenic material with a strongly cemented or more cemented rupture-resistance class; pararock fragmentspieces of geologic or pedogenic material with an extremely weakly cemented to moderately cemented rupture-resistance class; and discrete artifactspieces of human-manufactured material.

Particle-size distribution of fine earth is determined in the field mainly by feel. The content of rock fragments, pararock fragments, and discrete artifacts is an estimate of the proportion of the soil volume that they occupy.

After pretreatment to remove organic matter, carbonates, soluble salts, and other cementing agents and after dispersion to physically separate individual soil particles, the U. Department of Agriculture uses the following size separates for fine-earth fraction:.

Very coarse sand Soil texture refers to the weight proportion of the separates for particles less than 2 mm in diameter as determined from a laboratory particle-size distribution. The pipette method is the preferred standard, but the hydrometer method also is used in field labs Soil Survey Staff, If used, the hydrometer method should be noted with the results. Field estimates of soil texture class are based on qualitative criteria, such as how the soil feels gritty, smooth, sticky and how it responds to rubbing between the fingers to form a ribbon.

Estimated field texture class should be checked against laboratory determinations, and the field criteria used to estimate texture class should be adjusted as necessary to reflect local conditions. Sand particles feel gritty and can be seen individually with the naked eye. Silt particles have a smooth feel to the fingers when dry or wet and cannot be seen individually without magnification.

Clay soils are sticky in some areas and not sticky in others. For example, soils dominated by smectitic clays feel different from soils that contain similar amounts of micaceous or kaolinitic clay.

The relationships Hollow Of Winter - Various - Air Texture Volume II (CD) are useful for judging texture of one kind of soil may not apply as well to another kind. Some soils are not dispersed completely in the standard laboratory particle-size analysis. Examples include soils with andic soil properties high amounts of poorly crystalline, amorphous minerals and soils with high contents of gypsum more than about 25 percent. For soils like these, for which the estimated field texture class and the laboratory measured particle-size distribution differ markedly, the field texture is referred to as apparent because it is not an estimate that correlates well with the results of a laboratory test.

Apparent field texture is only a tactile evaluation and does not infer laboratory test results. The twelve texture classes fig. Subclasses of sand are coarse sand, sand, fine sand, and very fine sand.

Subclasses of loamy sands and sandy loams that are based on sand size are named similarly. Coarse sand. Fine sand. Very fine sand. Loamy sands. Loamy coarse sand. Loamy sand. Loamy fine sand.

Loamy very fine sand. Sandy loams. Coarse sandy loam. Sandy loam. Fine sandy loam. Very fine sandy loam. Silt loam. Sandy clay loam. Clay loam. Silty clay loam. Sandy clay. Silty clay. The USDA textural triangle is shown in figure A soil sample is assigned to one of the twelve soil texture classes according Hollow Of Winter - Various - Air Texture Volume II (CD) the values for the proportions of sand, silt, and clay, which are located along each of the three axes.

The eight subclasses in the sand and loamy sand groups provide refinement that in some cases may be greater than can be consistently determined by field techniques. Only those distinctions that are significant to use and management and that can be consistently made in the field should be applied when determinations of texture are based on field estimates alone. The need for fine distinctions in the texture of the soil layers results in a large number of classes and subclasses of soil texture.

It commonly is convenient to speak generally of broad groups or classes of texture. Table provides an outline of three general soil texture groups and five subgroups. In some areas where soils have a high content of silt, a fourth general class, silty soil materials, may be used for silt and silt loam.

There are some horizons or layers for which soil texture class terms are not applicable. These include bedrock and other cemented horizons such as petrocalcic horizons, duripans, etc. Other exceptions include layers composed of more than 90 percent rock fragments or artifacts and horizons or layers composed of 40 percent or more gypsum in the fine-earth fraction and that are not cemented. These exceptions are discussed below.

For soil materials with 40 percent or more, by weight, gypsum in the fine-earth fraction, gypsum dominates the physical and chemical properties of the soil to the extent that particle-size classes are not meaningful. Two terms in lieu of texture are used:. Coarse gypsum material. Fine gypsum material. These horizons or layers are described as bedrock or cemented material.

Additional information about the kind of rock, degree of cementation, and kind of cementing agent can also be provided. These layers are described as water or ice. They only refer to subsurface layers, such as in a floating bog. Figure shows a subsoil layer of ice. For soil materials with more than 90 percent rock or pararock fragments, there is not enough fine earth to determine the texture class. In these cases, the terms gravel, cobbles, stones, boulders, channers, and flagstones or their pararock fragment equivalents are used.

Layers that are not saturated with water for more than a few days at a time are organic if they have 20 percent or more organic carbon. Layers that are saturated for longer periods, or were saturated before being drained, are organic if they have 12 percent or more organic carbon and no clay, 18 percent or more organic carbon, and 60 percent or more clay or have a proportional amount of organic carbon, between 12 and 18 percent, if the clay content is between 0 and 60 percent.

Soils with more than 60 percent clay need an organic carbon content of at least 18 percent. The kind and amount of the mineral fraction, the kind of organisms from which the organic material was derived, and the state of decomposition affect the properties of the soil material. Descriptions include the percentage of undecomposed fibers and the solubility in sodium pyrophosphate of the humified material. Attention should be given to identifying and estimating the volume occupied by sphagnum fibers, which have extraordinary high water retention.

When squeezed firmly in the hand to remove as much water as possible, sphagnum fibers are lighter in color than fibers of hypnum and most other mosses. Fragments of wood more than 20 mm across and so undecomposed that they cannot be crushed by the fingers when moist or wet are called wood fragments. They are comparable to rock fragments in mineral soils and are described in a comparable manner. Saturated organic soil materials. Mucky peat.

Muck, peat, and mucky peat may be described in both organic and mineral soils provided the soils are saturated with water for 30 or more cumulative days in normal years or are artificially drained. These materials only qualify for the diagnostic sapric, fibric, and hemic soil material of Soil Taxonomy when they occur in organic soils i.

Non-saturated organic soil materials. Highly decomposed plant material. Moderately decomposed plant material. Slightly decomposed plant material. Modifiers may be needed to better describe the soil material making up the horizon or layer. These include terms for significant amounts of particles 2.

To describe soils with 15 percent or more, by volume, rock fragments, pararock fragments, or artifacts, the texture terms are modified with terms indicating the amount and kind of fragments. Examples include very gravelly loam, extremely paracobbly sand, and very artifactual sand.

The conventions for use of these terms and the definitions of class terms are discussed in the following sections on rock fragments, pararock fragments, and artifacts. Soil composition modifiers are used for some soils that have andic properties or formed in volcanic materials, soils that have a high content of gypsum, some organic soil materials, and mineral soil materials with a high content of organic matter.

Terms are also provided for limnic soil materials and permanently frozen layers permafrost. The weathering processes of volcanic materials are evidenced by 30 percent or more particles 0.

For material that has 40 percent or more gypsum, a term in lieu of texture is used e. The following modifiers are used only for organic soil materials that are saturated with water for 30 or more cumulative days in normal years or are artificially drained. Highly organic. Excluding live roots, the horizon has organic carbon content by weight of one of the following:.

Excluding live roots, the horizon has more than 10 percent organic matter and less than 17 percent fibers. Excluding live roots, the horizon has more than 10 percent organic matter and 17 percent or more fibers.

Limnic soil materials occur in layers underlying some soils of the soil order Histosols. By definition see Soil Taxonomy they are not recognized in mineral soils. They are mineral or organic soil materials originating from aquatic organisms or from aquatic plants that were later altered by aquatic organisms.

The following terms are used to describe the origin of the limnic materials:. Layers for which these terms are used may or may not also meet the definition for coprogenous earth, diatomaceous earth, or marl as defined in Soil Taxonomy. Layers of permafrost are described as permanently frozen e. Rock fragments are unattached pieces of geologic or pedogenic material 2 mm in diameter or larger that have a strongly cemented or more cemented rupture-resistance class.

Pararock fragments are unattached pieces of geologic or pedogenic material 2 mm in diameter or larger that are extremely weakly cemented through moderately cemented. Pararock fragments are not retained on sieves because they are crushed by grinding during the preparation of samples for particle-size analysis in the laboratory. Rock fragments and pararock fragments include all sizes between 2. Thus, rock and pararock fragments may be discrete, cemented pieces of bedrock, bedrock-like material, durinodes, concretions, nodules, or pedogenic horizons e.

Artifacts, however, are not included as rock or pararock fragments. They are described separately. Rock fragments and pararock fragments are described by size, shape, hardness, roundness, and kind of fragment. The classes are gravel, cobbles, channers, flagstones, stones, and boulders and their pararock counterparts i.

If a size or range of sizes predominates, the class is modified e. Gravel and paragravel are a collection of fragments that have diameters ranging from 2 to 76 mm.

The upper size limit of gravel and paragravel is 76 mm 3 inches. This coincides with the upper limit used by many engineers for grain-size distribution computations. The 5-mm and mm divisions for the separation of fine, medium, and coarse gravel coincide with the sizes of openings in the number 4 screen 4.

The mm 3-inch limit separates gravel from cobbles, the mm inch limit separates cobbles from stones, and the mm inch limit separates stones from boulders. The mm 6-inch and mm inch limits for thin, flat channers and flagstones, respectively, follow conventions used for many years to provide class limits for plate-shaped and crudely spherical rock fragments that have about the same soil use implications as the mm limit for spherical shapes. Rock fragments in the soil can greatly influence use and management.

It is important to not only consider the total amount of rock fragments, but also the proportions of the various size classes gravel, cobbles, stones, etc.

A soil with 10 percent stones is quite different from one with 10 percent gravel. When developing interpretive criteria, a distinction must be made between volume and weight percent of rock fragments.

Out today!! Strategy What If? Buy it from the label here:. Buy it from Kompakt or Forced Exposure etc! New albums Back in January, ! Digital Downloads available at BeatportJunoiTunes, etc.

First new full length since picks up where Future Rock left off in a whirlwind of dub, experimental pop, funk, and haze. Engineering help from Andy Brown and Rex Ritter.

Peak Oil label are releasing it in a limited vinyl edition and digital download versions. Vinyl features "lenticular" cover art like the crackerjack toys :. Here you can see bits of the Seattle show:. This Tuesday, I'm going to be collaborating with the illustrious Marc Fischer in support of some amazing touring bands:. Stocks are already pretty low. Buy it here or at your favorite local mom and pop record shop!

Updates again. A few more releases for are pending and will be announced here shortly! Secret techniques revealed I will have limited copies available in the shop starting July 31 and at shows but you can also get them from the label.

Air Texture label are releasing it July 2 through Kompakt. The previously unreleased Strategy song "Frog City" is included -- very excited to be included amongst a cast of old friends and favorite artists. Strategy playing live downtown this weekend at Floating World Comics more info here!

Next Releases, Updated! Strategy LP self titled - Peak Oil label! Strategy will be dj'ing a release show for the ZamZam record May 26 at Moloko! Get them here:. OK new website is live! This is the BETA version Revised layout to come shortly. I've been a little bit scarce around the internet the last couple years, but I'm pleased to have finally launched my own site, finally! Note it's very simple - not much arty crap, just info. New releases are out!!


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