Come quick!! The dear and sorrowful days we humans spend, I will eternally love those days, so I pray wholeheartedly. Now the gate has been fallen.
And the guidance will start to rise to the height, the soon to rise morning sun. When I closed my heart as the fragrance of the darkness approaching, I suddenly reminisce the nostalgic Refrain, echoing wide more than my pain. I believe I can get through this field of nothingness, if you are here by my side.
I want to be the light that protect the transient dreams and your tears. If I can throw away all my sadness into the blowing wind, I will sing a soft Serenade, because I believe that my wishing heart is your most precise eternal guidance.
Oh the storm of light, please make your roar in this sea ever-increasing sin. No matter how deep and how many I got wounded, I will still run forward. Overcoming all the rain of lamentation and lonely mornings, we will finally meet one another. The smile you made when you silently nod dissipates the despair lying in my eyes….
Looking up to the gate of memories, from there I heard a faint whisper, that lead me out of the Labyrinth of souls, and lead me into the path where faint light lies.
Go forth! Because this pain is just an Innocent Trick!! This place is the Paradise of labyrinth. If using this wings that capable to paint hearts in white, I can reach your eyes, I will smile and embrace you.
Knowing the meaning of our birth, for the first time we look at one another and create Destiny Legend. I reminisce that, at that field of lamentation, lies the flickering Fragrance of hope. This increasing love is an Endless Chain. But I want to connect it to overcome my own fate.
Be liberated! If in this ravine of scarlet colored darkness, I am allowed to have feelings for you, I will kiss you softly. The rain starts to roar, washing away all those tear, I believe this is the last Inferno…. Be awaken! The promised Crescent Wind!! Because our oath will become a legend. Because using this wings that capable to paint hearts in white, I have reached your eyes, I will now smile and embrace you.
The vestiges of those days that I have forgotten, faintly reflected at the distant sky. I thought that our hearts have been connected, but your wavering eyes keep in silence, answering nothing. The Filaments of light. Please engrave everything into my body, because I will walk away from this place. The Segments of memories. Now I unbind the entwined thread of fate, because I want to be stronger. So that once we meet again, I can protect you better.
The countless wishes I blurted, starts to fill up the sky. I thought that even our heart have been overlapped, but your wavering eyes goes away farther. No matter how many things I have lost, no matter how many things I have missed, I will search for them again and again. The endless Filaments. The power that capable to shred through the dark, is now within my grab.
The Segments of the two. I want to live on, without hurting anyone else again, and to be more honest with myself. Because I want to set my eyes at you. If I can overcome all my pain now, I will definately be stronger. So that once we meet again, I can protect you better, because I want to protect you.
That Eastertide with joy was bright, The sun shone out with fairer light, When, to their longing eyes restored, The apostle saw their risen Lord. To the star that shine upon the darkness, to the distant waving sea, I pledge my eternal vow, for the future of us, the destined two.
The long and lonely night, and the sad memories. You have changed them, into the power to step forward toward the future. The light starts to overflow, all my body starts to be as light as feather, as if I can reach the edge of the world in no time.
I love you, I will always love you. No matter what will happen, I am always be with you. Oh the birds flying in height, Oh the cloud embracing the sky, I wonder where you got the map, that made you fly in the sky without losing your way. I want to live gracefully I want to protect you strongly. My energy that exists here, may you shine as your own self brightly. The world starts to move, I wonder where will we head to. The only one I know is that the faraway horizon is so bright.
Look at me, always look at me. Until the day my eyes are shutted forever, please… be by my side. No matter what will happen, I will always be with you. I love your sky. I love your wind. Even the tears you never show me, I always love them. And from their effects, most Rituas will fetch another card whenever they are normal summoned or flip summoned Ritua Abyss and Ritua Marker even get their effect for every kind of summon!!
Mind Ogress has the powerful effect of returning up to 5 card s in both player graveyard to deck. This mean it has the ability to control opponent graveyard which is very important in the meta since more and more card benefit from graveyard. In a very rare occasion it can also become an anti-mill card. Water Mirror can be easily said as the heart of this deck. Few of the combos are:. With the proper Ritual in the graveyard, you can easily snatch your opponent level 6 or 8 monster just by returning the Water Mirror to deck from graveyard.
And guess what… most synchro used are level 6 and 8!! And remember that Ritua can easily maintain hand counts that will turn Tragoedia into a strong beatstick. With a Ritual and 2 Shadow Ritua in graveyard, a salvage card can turn to 4 bullets for Snipe Hunter. At the same time, it is a loophole that can kill your opponent Stardust Dragon easily. Her ability to fetch Genex Controller also a great arsenal for Ritual Summoning.
Enough said I think. At the same time, this card is the main tuner in this deck. I choose not to entirely focus on Ritual Summoning but rather stabilize it a bit with Synchros for more versatility. But I can guarantee this is a good Ritual Synchro Deck in which you have the decision to choose which of the two you want to do. This deck need more level 6 rituals even if it is a non-effect one and Tetra Ogre will later fill that role. Ritua Chain however, from my playtesting experience, is sucks.
And also since Ritua rely on Ritual Monsters for their hitter and Synchro in this deck casean anti-special summon cards can be effective against Rituas. Especially the details. Not only in Shana, I could spot the degradation in other anime also. Could it be a new style or… there are major degradation in anime industry? Okay, here is the etimology of the names found in the Shakugan no Shana light novel volume 17 chapter 3 that can be found here.
Mystes — Mystes Latin language means an initiate — a person who knows the secret teaching reference the facts that some Mystes knows the truth of the world. Hecate — Hecate is Goddess of underworld, of chthonic rites, and of black magic.
And at the same time also considered as one of the demon in Judeo-Christian. Sydonai — Sydonai is another name used to refer Asmodeusa demon of Judeo-Christian. Sydonai is one of the 72 demons of the Lesser Key of Solomon, depicted a a king who has 3 heads, one of the bull, one of the man, and one of the ram, has a a tail of serpent, and webbed feet of goose.
He also has a lance with banner. Known as the responsible of Art and Sciences. Saburac is depicted to have many weapons and has the ability to make wounds not to heal. Ramie — Ramie is a plant in nettle family. Ramie is one of the oldest fibre crops, which could be woven as an ideal textile for mummymaking because of its nature being toxic to bacteria and fungi. And, please note that Ramie is the only Tomogara whose name derived not from demons since it is a nick that Rasen no Fukin used as she collects Sonzai no Chikara.
Stolas — Stolas is another demon from the 72 Lesser Keys of Solomon. It is said that he takes shape either of an owl or of a man. Orobas — Orobas is a Realize My Ideal - Daston / Gouka - Continuously Attack Of Endless Shock (Vinyl) from the 72 Lesser Keys of Solomon.
Ribesal — Ribesal is another demon from the 72 Lesser Keys of Solomon. Haborym — Haborym another name of Aim. He is another demon from the 72 Lesser Keys of Solomon. Decarabia — Decarabia is another demon from the 72 Lesser Keys of Solomon. Purson — Purson is another demon from the 72 Lesser Keys of Solomon. He is depicted to have a lion face. In the Greek mythology, Alastor described as an avenger of evil deeds, and sometimes as a personification of curse. Trigon — Trigon is basically a shape of triangle.
The relation of Trigon and Hecate seems to refer to the fact that the cult images and altars of the Goddess Hecate in triplicate or trimorphic form were placed at three-way crossroad.
A reference could be found that the Hougu Trigon has the shape of triangle. Tartaros — Tartaros is the abyss or underworld in Greek Mythology. Trivia — Trivia is a Goddess of witchcraft, three-way crossroad, and the harvest moon. Kokytos — Kokytos is a name of the river in the underworld in Greek mythology. It is also known by the name of Cocytus. Crypta — Crypta Latin Language refers to a concealed stone chamber. Conloquium — Conloquium Latin language means dialogue.
Shana — Shana is derived from the name of her sword, Nietono no Shana. Most of the source are taken from the reference here. Here are the list of the terms that appeared at the light novel of Shakugan no Shana volume 17 chapter 3 that can be found here.
But if you have question why I use X translation for this X term, then I will gladly explain why. It actually has no particular meaning here. Well this story should be appeared at the 3rd season of the anime. I personally think that the novel is a lot better than the anime in various way. Because a chapter will roughly become a 30 minute anime which is impossible to be realized. What I prefer from the novel is that the reader could imagining thing they read. Making the development in novel to be felt stronger of course it will depend on the imagination of the individual… LoL.
Moreover novel does care for details of everything … side story, furigana, the picture of the situation, etc. But rather, people need to start differentiate anime and manga and novel. Under the brilliant light that shine upon the night, [Seireiden] has finally stopped. The giant orb, is now hovering slightly in the air and has almost landed. One third of the upper part from the shell of concealment, [Crypta]has also left being open.
From the outside world, only the tips of the towering fortress towers could be seen, floating in the mid air. Under [Seireiden]the tips of the mountain range that piercing through the sea of cloud forms a shape of separating wall.
Those mountain tips, either narrow and pointy or big and curving, are sparsely decorated in pine trees. The beauty of the scenery of those tips piercing through the sky is indescribable in words. This is the middle southern part of the great China, a place where no one even bother to come, a place made of deep ravines and mountains, and also the place which became [Seireiden] destination.
The place which [Bal Masque] choose secretly as their base. It was a freezing night without any wind blowing. He stood still, not making any motion. From his mysterious silhouette, his black eyes seen to reflect his avarice, as if he tried to seize what lies far beyond those moon and stars and to absorb those light. The time was now approaching the midnight.
From the opposite side of the stone tower, the concealed section deep within the rock mass of the lower part of [Seireiden]figure of four persons were seen. Those four persons surrounded a solid floating Jizaishiki. It was a silver Jizaishikia dim machinery which lower part is complexly and bizarrely entwined revealing only some part of the various machinery that was covered underneath. If I… Oo—hhh if it was me— I will never use suuu—cch a weak body loaded with a lot unknown elements!
In the first place, I even have said that I have already made preparation to add some extra free remodelling capability that I wanted to that [Bouuu — kkun]!
Now, for him to have such misappropriated multiple manifestation capability, moreover to lose his chance to use support armaments! It is very saddening for me! Then, a point of light appeared in front of him. The light then condensed into beautiful silver-colored-ray that dazzle into the eyes of who see it.
After few second being still in the mid air, it expanded as if it was exploding. From the lowest part of the machine, a spherical Jizaishiki appeared, it is so huge that it even fills the high ceiling and the floor. He removed his hat and moved it along the characters. He focused his sight to observe the flow of the symbols at the outer layer. Soo—o no proo—blem for you to play around with that ooo—nneee!
Please help me gather the most Exx—cclentt— material to write. Baal-Peor smiled faintly while gazing at the how great the gap that is projected by the amplitude of the vibration that moving silently. In this situation, how can he complete his action without destroying that whole thing? Helping each other as long it is not too bothersome, that is the relation of those two old friends.
Sometimes it gives good influence, yet sometimes it only bears more trouble, it is a thing they have done for few hundred years. The creation of the Jizaihou [Fuuzetsu] is in the top list of their history of successes and failures. Their intention and true nature are seemed in total opposite, but probably because of it, they mutually and silently put high respect on one another.
Even as a genius, they have gone through a lot of thing As she dwell in her thought it, in front of her, the Jizaishiki exploded like a big bang and then dissolved to every direction.
The grand and delicate symbols revealed the true nature assembled inside. In a glimpse it was like a planet weaved from gapless spider thread.
Moreover it was not only being roundish shape, but also countless links connecting various places, Very long and complex, those bending and straight line hardly seem if they follow any rule at all. The shape is a marvelous art. Ramie sighed once again. Baal-Peor only responded in smile, avoided giving any comment to his metaphor.
And Ramie looking to the part of the disassembled Jizaishikihe put a consideration to disassemble that part further. It seems to be connected to the core of the movement generator and materialization function, but how exactly does it work? Well, this is a bit different from my ability to perceive sharp aura, but… I felt that the harmony of this Shiki is so unnatural.
From that part, Ramie pointed out to a flow, that he arranged and alternated, to show what kind of operation it is. Originally this function is only needed by [Boukun II] that collects the reflected human personality each time [Reiji Maigo] transfered to another place in this world, right?
But well, [The crystalization of my study, the Exx — ccelent — — Boukun I] and [The crystalization of my study, the Exx — ccelent — — Boukun II] becomes the prerequisite isooo—ttope of the union. How was is Doo—mmino? In that step of plan, the general functions are yet needed so the function you pointed out should be in dormant state.
Anyway Professor, I hope you still remember about this matter. Please display the fuu—nnction model nuu—mmber The graph contained a picture of simplified human figure along with color, line, and circular shape acting as indicators in various places. If we analyze the malfunction and its peripheral area, we will be able to gain the clue for the reason behind the sharp sensation and the anomaly occurred to it.
I will leave the case to your care. And since the other and I have to begin the second step of the Taimeiin exchange, we will send some people to assist you.
In other word, that direction was a reminder from Baal-Peor that in their absence, he must not do anything suspicious. From outside, it only seemed that he wore back his hat and fixed its position. The execution of the second stage of the Taimei! Boo—th of them are very interesting theee—mmess—! What a baa—dd luck for me to be forced to chooo—oose one of them!? A little while ago, you were the one who is very eager for the second stage to be put into operation that you even had carefully selected the your mhachhinharhy.
In a corner of the moving fortress, [Seireiden]lies a tavern used as a resting and gathering place. Now, after a long while of absence, a unique banquet was being held there. And it was unique because it was done when he aimlessly came and had some drink in the tavern, being unnoticed, a lot of people began to crowd the place.
The banquet at the tavern has become the most obvious looking place. The dim lighting was blurred by the multiple flame colors freely lit by every person, the thick and old carpet was used by those with large figure to sit at, the chairs and tables with a style of some peculiar era were scattered all around and fully occupied. The sounds, the voices, the movements, all of them were under a sole rule.
It could be said that everything can be done as long as it is permitted to. Sydonai himself was positioning himself at a corner of the tavern, wearing sunglasses to cover his expression.
At his own pace, he slowly drank his colorless liquor from his short glass. Ignoring his rank, he started the conversation, and from his tone, the normal courtesy was almost no where to be found. But even so, that he purposely sat on the floor and picked a distance.
It is the very likely of him. From the corner seat, the place where the whole tavern can be seen, he looked around upon the noises that filled the atmosphere through his sunglasses. This is the liquor specially taken out for this occasion! Around the center of the room, the figure of Ribesal mounting at by Pirsoyn arm could be seen. It is dange. At another place, another noisy crowd spotted.
Do you know? We will have to depart for battle shortly! Everyone, including he himself, made merry the situation. And at the same time, were made happy. Now the emotion that he feels at this feast was, Worry… eh? The principal players in the derivatives markets are multi- national corporations, international agencies such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, investment banks, and hedge funds that pool the investments of wealthy clients—basically, everyone but individuals and nations.
What would it mean to reconfigure that marginalization from European notions of progress, modernity, history, and futurity? What alter. Building on the work of C. In the face of a seemingly monolithic financialized future, as conceived by investment banks and international development funds, this book looks to speculative fictions that highlight the displacements and vio- lences of global finance capitalism. Migrant Futures sets out to think specu- lation from below and highlights alternative engagements with futurity emerging from the colonized, displaced, and disavowed.
By excavating forgotten histories of science and empire, revising Realize My Ideal - Daston / Gouka - Continuously Attack Of Endless Shock (Vinyl) izations of technological subjectivities, and seeking out queer affinities that belie privatized futures, these works demonstrate how speculation can take the shape of radical unfurling, rather than protectionist anticipation. I focus my analysis on close readings of cultural texts from the s on.
These texts play across various geographies of colonialism Latin America, the Caribbean, South and Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific, and Africaand they share an impulse to complicate Eurocentric ideas about the universal subject, modernity, science, and history.
Together, they facilitate temporal and spatial disorientations that intervene in a neoliberal fantasy of a seamless world unified under the sign of global capitalism for the global financial citizen. More specifically, Realize My Ideal - Daston / Gouka - Continuously Attack Of Endless Shock (Vinyl) look to the genre of speculative fiction, wherein cul- tural producers from the global financial undercommons have refused to relinquish the terrain of imagined futures.
Specu- lation is not exclusively interested in predicting the future but is equally compelled to explore different accounts of history. It calls for a disruption of teleological ordering of the past, present, and future and foregrounds the processes of narrating the past history and the future science.
It tethers financial speculation to other forms of capitalist expansion, includ- ing land acquisition and purchasing on the margin. On the other hand, this book investigates narratives of futurity alternatively fabulated by transnational speculative fiction authors who challenge neoliberal ideas of freewheeling global entrepreneurialism.
Projections of futurity abound, each preoccupied with fears of oncoming deterioration, disaster, or accident. Some invite us to buy into these futures markets, placing bets on which will return the best dividends; others imag- ine things differently.
Furthermore, the Dark Matter anthologies and So Long Been Dreaming en- gage in a theoretical discussion about race and science fiction. Delany, Octavia E. Butler, and Walter Mosley, who seek to complicate and expand notions of what constitutes and defines the genre of science fic- tion. Progress narratives, conceptualizations of modernity, and empiricist im- peratives break across varied histories of imperialism, slavery, settler colo- nialism, and scenes of forced displacement from military and neocolonial incursions.
Afro futurism and Chican futurism might have some similar stakes in writing black and brown bodies into the future, but they do so against different forms of racist primitivism. Migrant Futures takes up this minoritarian sector Realize My Ideal - Daston / Gouka - Continuously Attack Of Endless Shock (Vinyl) a genre as a counterpoint to other forms of speculation—specifically, a financial specu- lation assumptive of a naturalized empiricism and universal financial sub- ject, which may pretend not to care about race but that nonetheless traffics across histories of racialized capitalism.
How are these narratives about sci- ence, modernity, and futurity intertwined with how we think about race, gender, and sexuality? Given the long and complicated relationship be- tween science and empire, what critical considerations and contributions does postcolonial speculation offer the genre of science fiction and scien- tific disciplines?
The critique levied by these postcolonial speculative fic- tion writers examines some common science fiction tropes—an emphasis on exploration, the settlement of new lands, potential alien invasions, and technological advancement that emerges from and characterizes the First. One of the most prominent themes of postcolonial speculative fiction is the revision of Western origin myths of technoscience to encourage a radical shift in the epistemological assumptions of scientific endeavors.
In my analy- sis of postcolonial speculative fiction, I foreground the critique of progress narratives that makes this emergent set of science fiction writing so vital a countersite for development models of capitalism.
The colonization of the future works to justify and rationalize imperial- ist expansionism by mobilizing ideological narratives that characterize its predation as a civilizing mission. In the case of finance capitalism, statisti- cal projection transforms the untenable future into a futurescape—akin to the transformation of land into landscape—that materializes the abstract, rendering it available for possession, even as a sight to behold, or an imagi- nary to occupy.
They used magic and the fantastic to mark where uncertainty lay in waiting. Critical inquiry into speculation demands not only a study of genre but also a critique of an ideology. The gambit of Migrant Futures is to examine futurity from the perspective of the dragons at the edge of the map.
Toward an Antipositivist Science Fiction The future is an always already occupied space. Though often idealized as blank and empty, primed for projection and population, the future is in practice never so fixed or consolidated, though financial instruments work precisely toward actualizing the future in order to monetize and profit from it.
The future exists as absolute uncertainty, which capitalism attempts to contain through the calculation of risk, but ultimately can- not foreclose entirely. Simultaneously filled with corporate fantasies of limitless profit and leftist antihierarchical possibilities, the future—or, rather, the endless multiplicity of futures—can never be fully colonized.
When used to orient subjects toward normativity, the future offers seemingly flexible but always narrow projections of improvement. Capitalism, after all, is interested in norma- tivity only to the extent that it produces insecurity and consumerist desire. If it is to remain a space of possibility, the future must always also be a multiply occupied space. Migrant Futures concerns itself with speculative fiction. But strangeness and familiarity both remain inherently attached to situ- ated, subjective experiences.
For this reason, I have generally preferred more ca- pacious terms that are less interested in literary taxonomies than in the various modalities of writing and reading that can alter relations between writer and reader, shift ways of thinking, and produce different kinds of subjects.
Nevertheless, many. Understanding the production of scientific knowledge, as with other forms of knowledge production, requires critical attention to the condi- tions and contexts that shape these knowledges.
For the future is on the move, and though finance capitalism attempts to monopolize it through speculative instruments that render it a profitable space, the future remains profoundly unknowable and unpredictable. Temporal Geographies of the Speculative Undercommons The texts I examine herein posit critiques and alternatives to the specula- tions of globalization and interject radical revisions of progress narratives by attending to the markedly uneven accumulation of wealth of late capital- ism.
These counterspeculations tend to refuse strictly utopian or dystopian trajectories for technoculture, and they attempt to intervene in develop- mental teleologies by denaturalizing linear arrangements of time. When speculative futures run wild, excavation, historicization, and haunting become increasingly important modes of contingency to slow the storm of progress. Under the rubric of speculative fiction, various historical networks of affiliations among Asian immigrants to the Caribbean and Mexico, Malaysian workers in Singapore, and Asian Brazilians who migrate for a second time to South- ern California are evoked that decenter the United States in the narra- tive of immigration to the Americas.
The authors I examine posit the geo- graphical loci of the Brazilian Amazon, the U. My project, therefore, sug- gests that these speculative fictions forge transnational affiliations by posit- ing diasporic movement as a technology that works covalently with other intensified global flows. Queer theorists have named a homonormativity, homo- nationalism, and queer liberalism that point to the limitations of social movements for legal recognition, one that ultimately locks the struggle into a juridical framework that demands the production of a fixed subject, tethered to the nation as its citizen.
My attention to a more inclusive account of scientific practice is motivated by an effort to recog- nize the often invisible labor that supports scientific enterprises and dis. I argue that speculative fiction can foster alternative forms of connectivity that exceed and defy the privatizing logics of nation, corporation, and nuclear family. The fictions I examine formulate innovative structures of belonging and possible coalition building across conventional differences that emerge from alternative genealogies of speculative fiction, including s Latin American magical realism, Caribbean carnival, Afro futurism, manga, anime, Chinese folklore, and rasquachismo.
These paraliterary genealo- gies call our attention to the significance of imaginative literary forms that arise out of paracapitalist contexts and therefore might provide even more grounds for imagining the world beyond capitalist realism.
Set in the Amazon jungle, the novel unearths U. If both financial speculation and specu- lative fiction draw on at least the recent past, what are their extrapolation points? If those points of departure shift, or if authors of the future look to alternative historical flash points, how might their projections change? Chapter 1 extrapolates from the historical narrative of Fordist ruin and fail- ure rather than Fordist triumphalism to inquire what might have happened if the fortune of global capitalism had foretold ecological disaster rather than only spectacular profit.
As decades of scholarship in Latin American and Latinx literary studies show, the production of borders in- volves a practice of worlding, of fabulations of time and space. Though a radical revision of P. These graphic narratives about street urchins trying to survive in a foreboding landscape interrogate what it is like to live amid the towering edifices of futurity without the means to make a home.
In Malinky Robot, the children of the future take truant paths through makeshift geographies to eke out a life in the shadow of an Asian Century. Finally, Salt Fish Girl formulates a trans- genic commons that intervenes in the privatization of the future. Taken together, these speculative acts model a cultural politics of decolonizing futurity, of occupying the not yet, to hold it open for the yet to come. I will outnumber you. I will outbillion you. I am the spectacle in the forest. I am the inventor of rubber.
I will outrubber you. Sir, the reality of your world is nothing more than a rotten caricature of great opera. His impossible dream is realized by staging an opera aboard the steamship he originally commissioned for the purpose of securing a fortune in rub- ber. Fitzcarraldo, using the suspiciously volunteered labor of hundreds of Indians, succeeds in dragging his ship over a mountain to gain access to untapped rubber trees, only to have his boat cut loose and set adrift into perilous rapids by the same indigenous workers on the other side.
The history of the rubber industry necessarily stretches across multiple geographies and temporalities. In this way, this U. This chapter considers a history of imperial and neocolonial structures in Brazil, the overlapping nature of various empires in South America, and the technoracialization of the global Asian subject. The Eurocentric narration of the discovery of rubber by La Condamine, for example, displaces indigenous memories of foreign incursion.
It is at that scene of temporal colonization that Yamashita revisits to recalibrate a skewed extrapolation point. In the speculative landscape of Through the Arc, it is not only a legacy of globalization but also a history of science that Yamashita excavates in the Amazon rainforest.
The rubber plantation unrelentingly disciplined its primarily indige. EuroAmerican notions of technoscientific modernity prepare the ideo- logical groundwork for neocolonial capitalist enterprises that exploit al- ready racialized and gendered ideas of the tropics to subject workers at the equator to labor practices imported from Michigan.
The unexpected and thrilling maneuver that Yamashita plots is for Through the Arc to meet Fordist ideologies of development at the level of representation, critiquing imperialist fantasies of the tropics by staging an oversaturated, fantastical spectacularization of the rainforest itself, allowing those deeply embedded, earlier colonial fantasies to surface and be examined. The novel also references U. First, these commercial and cultural incursions point to European and U.
Second, these enterprises work in conjunc- tion with a system of fantastical speculations that constructs a tropicalist imaginary sustained through colonialist visual and literary representations of the jungle. Through these character- izations, Yamashita presents an Amazon populated not only by indigenous inhabitants but also by local and global travelers who arrive at the rain- forest via circuits of migration, capital expansion, and religious journeys.
By juxtaposing a foundational text of Western social sci- ence with Brazilian popular culture, Yamashita asserts that Tristes Tropiques and the Brazilian novela share a penchant for melodrama and sensation that render them both speculative texts, participating in the perpetual reconsti- tution of a national and international understanding of Brazilian culture. With three arms, he is the figuration of relentlessly reaching, U.
His experience of his alien body asserts a level of acceptance not usually associated with mutation and difference: he thinks of his physical difference as an asset. In his eyes, his third arm renders him so exceptional that he exceeds the normative. He finds that the assembly line, musical compositions, and conventional sporting rules cannot adjust their logics for his extraordinary abilities. On the other hand, her depiction of the multinational cor- poration leader is one of excess and mutation.
The terrain Through the Arc examines is itself a mutant space. The liquid de- posits of the molten mass had been squeezed through underground veins to virgin areas of the Earth. The Amazon Forest, being one of the last virgin areas on Earth, got plenty.
In this example, Yamashita upsets the teleological narrative of scien- tific discovery. The most exotic looking tropical species of the Amazon are already biologically entangled with clandestine neocolonial projects in Bra- zil.
The spectacular colorations of these jungle organisms come from their nibbling on the rusty skeletons of U. This surprising diet serves as a piquant reminder of the U. In another example of resurfacing discarded histories, Yamashita continues to interrogate West- ern interpretations of the Amazon through the questionable lens of early ethnographic research.
The historian of science Nancy Leys Stepan situates the enduring tropi- calist representations of the rainforest in the context of European em- pire building, the emergence of racist pseudoscience, and ethnographic travel and tourism to Latin America.
This disavowal takes material form in the pollution, waste, and overaccumulation of capitalist imperialism. While the novel tropes mutated bodies as indicators of U. The ball, a gravitational force with its own narrative voice, attaches to Ishimaru, pull- ing him toward the epicenter of neocolonial transformation of the Amazon.
What exactly can Kazumasa divest himself of and what can he not? Monetary fortune. But not this constant relationship to the buried past, to. This revelation raises the question: What is alien? The story of the alien thus always returns the reader to a layered history of imperialist ven- tures into the Amazon that mine the rainforest for its resources. The irony of this connection between the alien and the imperialist invader is the his- tory of jungle narratives that imagine the jungle from the perspective of the colonizer or the neocolonial entrepreneur as an alien space of extraordi- nary flora and fauna and primitive peoples.
The text works structurally to emphasize this theme of returns and disrupt the developmental narrative that has often accompanied the re- lating of Asian American history and the story of developing nations.
The suffix also significantly gestures toward the names of the transpacific ships that facilitated Japanese immigration to South America.
But what is the opposite of a bird? Or for that matter, a human being? And what then, is the great rain forest, where, in its season, the rain never ceases and the rainbows are myriad? The pas- sage presents the rainforest as an already speculative space, where con- stant precipitation yields a propensity for messy mutation, not neatly pack- aged transformation.
Migration from Japan to Brazil had begun shortly after the abolition of slavery in Brazil inbut Japan had long since out. Though Japan had initially turned to workers from Pakistan, Iran, and Bangladesh, Japanese Brazilians were considered more assimilatable sub- jects who could fill the same labor niche without presenting Japan with an overtly visible and racialized face of migrant labor.
The substantial migration of Japanese Brazilians to Japan in the late s and s ren- ders the telling of Asian American history as having only one trajectory an impossibility and inaccuracy. Through the Arc is a haunted text occupied by a repressed history of Ford- ist tropicalism.
While the fabulist tale strikes a degree of levity in tone, Through the Arc issues a critique of ecological non- chalance, the avaricious tenacity of multinational corporations, a history of racist science in a racially mixed and idealized country, and U. Through a blend of magical realist and science fictional conventions, Yamashita explores the troubling collusion between science and neocolonial enterprises in developing countries, the layered and intertwined legacies of empire in the Americas and Asia, and the re- lationship between nationalism and narratives of progress.
Empire in the Brazilian Rainforest Take away from us the motor vehicle, and I do not know what would happen. The dam- age would be more serious and lasting than if our land were laid waste by an invader. We could recover from the blowing up of New York City and all the big cities on the Atlantic seaboard more quickly than we could recover from the loss of our rubber.
It is waiting for you and it will shadow you and it will outwit all your smart moves as that jungle grows thicker and deeper. In this section, I consider the conditions already in place that en- abled the Ford Motor Company to establish itself so readily in the Amazon rainforest. Since the s, Dutch and British entrepreneurs had established an ex- pansive and successful rubber tree empire in Asia.
Inthe British Rub- ber Restoration Act also known as the Stevenson Plan sought to double the price of rubber, which would exert pressure on the growing U.
In retaliation, Ford. Because rubber tree cultivation is restricted to tropical climates, the resulting competition among British, Dutch, and U. These connections suggest the multiple, interconnected, and various machinations of empire. Organized and run as a U. To conform to U. The workers made a point of overturning automobiles and smashing the time clocks see figure 1. In the Amazon, so close to the equator, it would seem sensible that rhythms of work abide by the sun.
Workers also directed their frustrations at other invasive cultural sys- tems that sought to force a certain digestive and temporal regimenta. From the Collections of The Henry Ford. Gift of Ford Motor Company. Object id: The mixture is not a particularly good one from a racial standpoint, but it is by no means a bad one. In the United States aroundthe wide acceptance of scientific racism and eu- genicist thought led to compulsory sterilization practices and immigration restriction legislation.
In his entreaty to Ford to create his rubber empire in Brazil rather than in Sumatra, LaRue mobilizes two contradictory Ori- entalist formulations of Asia as, on the one hand, hopelessly unmodern and less intelligent, and on the other hand, at an advantage and in less need of being saved by Fordist progress.
In one of the more remarkable pas- sages of his report, LaRue encounters and disparages another rubber plant run by a Syrian named Michel. To position U. He becomes a speculator of potential natural and human re- sources, projecting narrative and fantasy across those geographies in order to attract the venture capital needed to sustain the plantation. The workers rebelled, as did the rainforest, and the Fordist project in Brazil settled into relative obscurity. In his history of U. The rubber cultivation process could have been, and had already been for many years, a renewable resource extraction.
The more ecologically re- spectful methods were primarily used by local Brazilian seringueiros. Global capitalism not only severely altered the ecology of Amazonia, but it also in effect displaced Brazilian workers who had been supporting their own lives by cultivating rubber in a more sustainable way.
The rainforest forcefully rejects the devel- opment model. The story of Pena illuminates how development and discovery are both embedded in settler colonialist logics of laying claim to land through capi- talist constructs of property deeds, proofs of ownership, and legal con- tracts.
It is a theme park, not unlike Disneyland or Universal Studios, that seeks to replicate Hollywood. Through the Arc intervenes in and disrupts such imperialist fantasies of a jungle perpetually uninhabited and virginal, unruly and in need of out- side regulation, and ripe and available for development. As a consummate proponent of globalization, Tweep depends on the abstraction of the jungle to make it available for resource extraction. The rainforest is a space that is produced through the ways in which it is perceived, con- ceived, and lived.
Conclusion Researching this chapter involved spending some time in and around Detroit, where one does not have to look hard for evidence of the history of the auto industry and its participation in a racial capitalism.
In my analysis of Through the Arc, I have examined how European colonial science provided a racialized discourse of tropicalization that facilitated U. I have argued that the Fordist rhetoric of improving and civilizing the Amazon built on earlier established colonial discourses. To conclude this chapter, I would like to return to the broader questions of financial speculation and speculative fiction as competing nar- ratives of futurity.
Through the Arc represents both transna- tional business elites who move between the United States and Europe and the dispossessed undercommons who occupy the spaces of the rain- forest and the favela. Capitalism, having already found a way to turn a profit on disaster, also at- tempts to harness the energy of forecasting and preempting it. Speculating on potential threats at the U. In his account of the affective qualities evoked by Dark Winter—the small- pox attack simulation staged at Andrews Air Force Base in —Lakoff emphasizes the feeling that viewers needed to be forewarned of its simili- tude to reality, lest they be accidentally tricked into believing the training exercise was an actual emergency.
This had frighten- ing qualities of being real, as a matter of fact too real. And because we have television cameras here broadcasting, we want to tell everyone, this did not happen, it was a simulation. But, it had such realism, and we are going to try to show you the sense of realism that came from that today.
Preemption, as Patricia Dunmire has argued, moves rhetorical and ideo. The plan is not only inadequate, it is tau- tological—producing the very crisis it seeks to contain. Such speculative narratives inform, produce, and sustain the secu- rity state precisely through states of insecurity.
It gambles. As the Department of Homeland Security looks to science fiction au- thors and their speculations on alien invasion, apocalyptic scenarios, and uncertain futures, the future emerges as a speculative space where various narratives compete for influence not only in the allocation of resources but also in the ideological configuration around homeland defense.
When these cultural imaginaries conceptualize risk at the border, they project into that space forms of securitization that manifest themselves as armed check- points fortified by surveillance technologies.
The task of this chapter is to look to alternative models for speculating the border. Imagining the systemic breakdown of the U. Several more recent science fictions reconfigure how we imagine the U. These works experiment with the horizon and the network as two relational structures that reconfigure migrant futurity around a transnational commons rather than a securitized homeland.
This pair- ing of texts illuminates the eternal flexibility of the border in its ability to maintain a stark unevenness between flows of bios and capital. Rather than depicting the borderlands as a site in need of increased regulation and containment through restrictive technologies, Tropic of Orange carefully revamps the borderlands as a geography already populated with techno- cultural agents working across diasporic networks.
Multinational corporations suffer backlash from mutant environmental agents, corrupt governmental institutions collapse under the pressure of their own contradictory logics, and grassroots transnational futurities emerge. Bidwell case ofhighlighting the discursive acrobatics involved in de- termining whether shipping oranges from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland should be taxed as a foreign or domestic exchange of goods.
Even as it seeks to deny sovereignty to Puerto Rico as a separate, distinct state, the United States simultaneously must produce differences between home and abroad through flexible rhetorical strategies such as those exer- cised in Downes v.
Written in the context of the War on Drugs, first declared by President Ronald Reagan inTropic of Orange traces the connections among the culture wars, narratives of race conflict surrounding the Los Angeles riots ofand the national acceleration toward neoliberalism, culmi- Realize My Ideal - Daston / Gouka - Continuously Attack Of Endless Shock (Vinyl) in the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agree- ment nafta in As the Tropic of Cancer takes on material form as a translucent and resil- ient filament running through an orange growing around it, the movement.
Simpson, and narcocitrus also come to light, allowing Yamashita to revisit particularly dramatic examples of neoliberal practices that demonstrate how discourses of liberal multiculturalism col- lide with nativist rhetoric invoked to maintain inconsistent regulation of traffics across borders.
Tropic of Orange explores several alternative, strategic appropriations of technologies to reconfigure border operations to quite different ends. Yamashita uses speculative fic- tion to draw connections between and comment on the histories of empire and technology that continue to shape the material reality of the border.
In the construction, regulation, negotiation, and renego- tiation of the border, multiple technologies come into play. While devices and machinery used for U. For example, many border technologies are tested first in Iraq and Afghanistan under wartime conditions, a relationship indica- tive of the militarization of the border zone.
Infrared, night vision, and. In addition, legal infrastructure and carceral systems work in conjunction with this arsenal of equipment and become part of the border regulation machine.
Bid- well case, legislative acts, rhetorical strategies, and economic policies par- ticipate in the conceptualization and reconceptualization of the border. Food and Drug Administration Commissioner. In Marchsuspicion over two discolored grapes from Chile caused the U. The incident arose during a time when xenophobic reactions to global terrorism had recently been stirred up in the United States. The bombing of PanAm flight had occurred in the previous December, and the news media focused their coverage on emerging concerns in both public and official discourse about security dur- ing uncertain times in the Middle East.
Two years after PropositionCalifornia Proposition passed, setting the pace elsewhere for similar efforts to eradicate affirma- tive action at the state level. This period also gave rise to a noticeable milita- rization of the U. Writing during an onslaught of simultaneous media representations of racial conflict and liberal multiculturalism in Los Angeles, Yamashita. Simpson trial, the Rodney King verdict, and the Los Angeles riots of with debates about border regulation, immigration, and nafta.
Tropic of Orange uses a rubric of transnational- ism to question the formulation of multiculturalism and race relations in the national framework. The mechanism that brings all these interven- tions into play is that of speculation. Through fantastic revisionist cartog- raphies, Tropic of Orange dramatically remaps la frontera. The Orange and the Truck Tropic of Orange deploys two border crossers—the orange and the truck— that help us examine how these interlinked technologies work to shape the border.
Columbus first transported the citrus fruit to the New World in an effort to stave off scurvy among his sailors. To invoke the border crossing of fruit is to reference a century of U. Due in large part to the facile relationship between the federal govern- ment and private military contractors, George W. In this way, global shifts register most palpably for those employed on the production side of the fence.
Her destination seems perpetually out of reach, and her burden of heavy, modern bathroom faucets picked up from the post office further encumbers her. Rafaela was indifferent to its style. For the people primarily women whose work involves the production and manufacturing of the electronic and computer technologies installed at the border, it is unlikely that these systems of surveillance will in turn work to protect them.
The promises of a better tomorrow or a secure future overlook these women whose daily lives consist of a series of dangerous presents that constantly threaten to foreclose the possibilities of futurity. This bottleneck of transborder flow becomes an opportunity to focus on the laboring bodies often excised from narratives of free trade. When the cable was in place, Arcangel secured both ends to the two hooks and drew the hooks through the very skin of his body, through the strangely scarred lobes at the sides of his torso.
When Yamashita describes in spectacular and visceral terms the labor of Arcangel pulling the semi across the border, she reinserts the physicality of laboring bodies back into the U. Tethering the human and the truck performs the agential entanglements of alienated labor and calls forth the question of what it means to matter.
Tropic of Orange is more generally a story of entanglements. The human charac. Each scene diffracts various temporalities within and across the field of spacetimemattering. Scenes never rest, but are reconfigured within, dis- persed across, and threaded through one another. A passable impassability. Identity undone by a discontinuity at the heart of matter itself.
The analogy has its limits, though, for when one scales up the quantum to the scale of human organ trafficking, of semis stuck in traffic, the obstinate imperme- ability of the border pushes the quantum back into the distant horizon as sheer potentiality.
To examine the inconsistency of border regulation more closely, Yama- shita tugs at the geographical fabric of the U. Instead, Tropic of Orange is a story whose geog- raphy remains in constant motion, evading the fixating and fetishizing of the imperialist cartographer.
Whereas one might be trained to read from front to back, the HyperContexts page invites other reading practices and understandings of movement. The orange, taken from private land in Mexico to the public thoroughfare of a highway that continues across national borders, provides Yamashita with the primary plot device through which to explore an imperfect system of transnational trafficking, where products and labor slip between owners on conduits that cannot be wholly governed, controlled, or policed, no matter the lengths state, national, and international regulations go to do so.
Nothing was more or less important. Early versions of border patrol in Texas first targeted Chinese migrants hoping to cross the border from Mexico to the U. Asian American scholars, by reinvigorating attention to Asian migra- tions to Latin America, have intervened in the understanding of the re- gion as a historical site of only European colonial encounters.
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