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History Talk This article is about the regular zombie. For other variants and zombie-like mobs, see Zombie disambiguation. This feature is exclusive to Java Edition. Main article: Zombie siege. Baby zombie riding mobs other than chickens. Main article: Zombie Villager. Main article: Husk. Main article: Drowned. Main article: Entity format. Entity data Tags common to all entities Tags common to all mobs Tags common to all zombies.

A zombie emerging from a dark cave. Playerzombie and husk size comprasion. Dying zombie mob in Bedrock Edition. Dying zombie mob in Java Edition. The zombies drop feathers because I don't know what they should drop, and chickens weren't around back then!

Cancel Save. Fan Feed 1 Java Edition 1. Universal Conquest Wiki. Iron Sword occasionally, may be enchanted Iron Shovel occasionally, may be enchanted Armor occasionally, may be enchanted Carved Pumpkin Armor Enchantment [note 2]. Zombies Enchantment [note 2]. Unused sound event [sound 1]. Kill a hostile mob or one of the following neutral mobs: an endermana piglina zombified piglina spideror a cave spider. Added zombies. Zombies occasionally appear wearing armorbut this has no protective effect on their health.

Zombies have arm swinging animations when they attack. Zombies are now more dangerous, respawn, despawn, and fight skeletons that shoot them. Zombies now burn only when the sunlight level is greater than 7, and not due to torches at night [ verify ]. Zombies now drop 0—2 feathers upon death. Before chickens were added in MinecraftNotch confessed [7] that he made zombies drop feathers because he had no idea what they should have dropped when killed.

Zombies now drop rotten flesh instead of feathers. All mobs have the bottom texture of the face flipped, resulting in a change in the model. Zombies can now be harmed by splash potions of healing, and healed by splash potions of harming.

The zombies' AI has been improved, giving them a much better sense of direction when pursuing the playerallowing them to navigate obstacles, and even small mazes if constructed, to get to the player. Zombies have been given the ability to 'see' through windows, the first mob able to do so intelligently not counting spiderswho are able to see through all blocks. The zombies' AI has been improved again to cope with catching fire in sunlight. If a zombie is exposed to sunlight and bursts into flames, it searches for a body of water to douse the flames, or at least a shelter to hide from sun.

Zombies now chase and attack villagersattack doors breaking them on Hard and Hardcore difficulties. Zombies now sometimes drop iron ingotshelmetsshovels and swords as a rare drop. Zombies now sometimes attack villagers in preference to the playerand always chose the shortest way to the target, even if there is a door in the way.

Added baby zombies. Baby zombies cannot spawn naturally and can be spawned only through map editors and NBT editing. Zombie armor has been added back into the game, and they can now wear any type of armor. Zombies can now hold an iron sword or iron shovel. Zombies now have a chance of dropping these itemsif they have them. Iron helmetsswords and shovels have been removed as rare drops from zombies. Zombies now use their attack animation like they did in Survival Test.

The new skill-based matchmaking system will allow players of the same skill levels to be teamed-up to fight Zombies in public game modes. Experience 16, all-new Multiplayer Maps, including "Nuketown ," a retro-futuristic version of the original "Nuketown. Carefully crafted with an arsenal of limited edition physical items and exclusive digital content, this is sure to take your game to the next level.

This puts air superiority in the palms of your hands, along with limited edition physical items and a cache of exclusive digital content. Multiplayer May 11, Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved May 13, Orange County Register. Retrieved March 16, Retrieved January 7, Showbuzz Daily. Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved February 20, February 20, — via The Futon Critic.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved February 11, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved May 21, Archived from the original on February 18, The English word "zombie" was first recorded inin a history of Brazil by the poet Robert Southeyin the form of "zombi". Some authors also compare it to the Kongo word vumbi mvumbi ghost, revenant, corpse that still retains the soulnvumbi body without a soul.

Seabrook 's The Magic Islandthe account of a narrator who encounters voodoo cults in Haiti and their resurrected thralls. A new version of the zombie, distinct from that described in Haitian folklore, emerged in popular culture during the latter half of the 20th century. This interpretation of the zombie is drawn largely from George A. An evolution of the zombie archetype came with the video games Resident Evil and The House of the Dead in the late s, with their more scientific and action-oriented approach and their introduction of fast-running zombies, leading to a resurgence of zombies in popular culture.

These games were initially followed by a wave of low-budget Asian zombie films such as the zombie comedy Bio Zombie and action film Versusand then a Zombies wave of popular Western zombie films in the early s, including films featuring fast-running zombies—such as 28 Days Laterthe Resident Evil and House of the Dead films, and the Dawn of the Dead remake —and the British zombie comedy Shaun of the Dead The " zombie apocalypse " concept, in which the civilized world is brought low by a global zombie infestation, has since become a staple of modern popular art, seen in such media as The Walking Dead franchise.

The late s and s saw the humanization and romanticization of the zombie archetypewith the zombies increasingly portrayed as friends and love interests for humans.

In this context, zombies are often seen as stand-ins for discriminated groups struggling for equality, and the human—zombie romantic relationship is interpreted as a metaphor for sexual liberation and taboo breaking given that zombies are subject to wild desires and free from social conventions. The English word "zombie" is first recorded inin a history of Brazil by the poet Robert Southeyin the form of "zombi", actually referring to the Afro-Brazilian rebel leader named Zumbi and the etymology of his name in "nzambi".

In Haitian folklorea zombie Haitian French : zombiHaitian Creole : zonbi is an animated corpse raised by magical means, such as witchcraft. The concept has been popularly associated with the religion of voodoobut it plays no part in that faith's formal practices.

How the creatures in contemporary zombie films came to be called "zombies" is not fully clear. The film Night of the Living Dead made no spoken reference to its undead antagonists as "zombies", describing them instead as " ghouls " though ghouls, which derive from Arabic folklore, are demons, not undead.

Although George Romero used the term "ghoul" in his original scripts, in later interviews he used the term "zombie". The word "zombie" is used exclusively by Romero in his script for his sequel Dawn of the Dead[16] including once in dialog. He eventually accepted this linkage, even though he remained convinced at the time that "zombies" corresponded to the undead slaves of Haitian voodoo as depicted in White Zombie with Bela Lugosi.

Zombies are featured widely in Haitian rural folklore as dead persons physically revived by the act of necromancy of a bokora sorcerer or witch. The bokor is opposed by the houngan priest and the mambo priestess of the formal voodoo religion.

A zombie remains under the control of the bokor as a personal slave, having no will of its own. The Haitian tradition also includes an incorporeal type of zombie, the "zombie astral ", which is a part of the human soul.

A bokor can capture a zombie astral to enhance his spiritual power. A zombie astral can also be sealed inside a specially decorated bottle by a bokor and sold to a client to bring luck, healing, or business success. It is believed that God eventually will reclaim the zombie's soul, so the zombie is a temporary spiritual entity.

The two types of zombie reflect soul dualisma belief of Haitian voodoo. Each type of legendary zombie is therefore missing one half of its soul the flesh or the spirit. The zombie belief has its roots in traditions brought to Haiti by enslaved Africans and their subsequent experiences in the New World.

It was thought that the voodoo deity Baron Samedi would gather them from their grave to bring them to a heavenly afterlife in Africa " Guinea "unless they had offended him in some way, in which case they would be forever a slave after death, as a zombie. A zombie could also be saved by feeding them salt. English professor Amy Wilentz has written that the modern concept of Zombies was strongly influenced by Haitian slavery.

Slave drivers on the plantations, who were usually slaves themselves and sometimes voodoo priests, used the fear of zombification to discourage slaves from committing suicide. The Haitian zombie phenomenon first attracted widespread international attention during the United States occupation of Haiti —when a number of case histories of purported "zombies" began to emerge.

Seabrooke cited Article of the Haitian criminal codewhich was passed inasserting that it was an official recognition of zombies. This passage was later used in promotional materials for the film White Zombie.

Also shall be qualified as attempted murder the employment which may be made by any person of substances which, without causing actual death, produce a lethargic coma more or less prolonged. If, after the administering of such substances, the person has been buried, the act shall be considered murder no matter what result follows. Inwhile researching folklore in Haiti, Zora Neale Hurston encountered the case of a woman who appeared in a village.

A family claimed that she was Felicia Felix-Mentor, a relative, who had died and been buried in at the age of The woman was examined by a doctor; X-rays indicated that she did not have a leg fracture that Felix-Mentor was known to have had. She wrote: "What is more, if science ever gets to the bottom of Vodou in Haiti and Africa, it will be found that some important medical secrets, still unknown to medical science, give it its power, rather than gestures of ceremony.

A Central or West African origin for the Haitian zombie has been postulated based on two etymologies in the Kongo languagenzambi "god" and zumbi " fetish ". This root helps form the names of several deities, including the Kongo creator deity Nzambi a Mpungu and the Louisiana serpent deity Li Grand Zombi a local version of the Haitian Damballabut it is in fact a generic word for a divine spirit.

A related, but also often incorporeal, undead being is the jumbee of the English-speaking Caribbeanconsidered to be of the same etymology; [30] in the French West Indies also, local "zombies" are recognized, but these are of a more general spirit nature. In some communities, it is believed that a dead person can be zombified by a small child. These trains appeared ordinary, but were staffed by zombified workers controlled by a witch. The trains would abduct a person boarding at night, and the person would then either be zombified or beaten and thrown from the train a distance away from the original location.

Several decades after Hurston's work, Wade Davisa Harvard ethnobotanistpresented a pharmacological case for zombies in a article in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology[35] and later in two popular books: The Serpent and the Rainbow and Passage of Darkness: The Ethnobiology of the Haitian Zombie Davis traveled to Haiti in and, as a result of his investigations, claimed that a living person can be turned into a zombie by two special powders being introduced into the blood stream usually through a wound.

The first, French : coup de poudre "powder strike"includes tetrodotoxin TTXa powerful and frequently fatal neurotoxin found in the flesh of the pufferfish family Tetraodontidae. The second powder consists of deliriant drugs such as datura.

Together these powders were said to induce a deathlike state, in which the will of the victim would be entirely subjected to that of the bokor. Davis also popularized the story of Clairvius Narcissewho was claimed to have succumbed to this practice. The most ethically questioned and least scientifically explored ingredient of the powders is part of a recently buried child's brain. The process described by Davis was an initial state of deathlike suspended animationfollowed by re-awakening — typically after being buried — into a psychotic state.

The psychosis induced by the drug and psychological trauma was hypothesised by Davis to reinforce culturally learned beliefs and to cause the individual to reconstruct their identity as that of a zombie, since they "knew" that they were dead and had no other role to play in the Haitian society. Societal reinforcement of the belief was hypothesized by Davis to confirm for the zombie individual the zombie state, and such individuals were known to hang around in graveyards, exhibiting attitudes of low affect.

Davis's claim has been criticized, particularly the suggestion that Haitian witch doctors can keep "zombies" in a state of pharmacologically induced trance for many years. According to psychologist Terence Hinesthe scientific community dismisses tetrodotoxin as the cause of this state, and Davis' assessment of the nature of the reports of Haitian zombies is viewed as overly credulous.

Scottish psychiatrist R. Laing highlighted the link between social and cultural expectations and compulsion, in the context of schizophrenia and other mental illness, suggesting that schizogenesis may account for some of the psychological aspects of zombification. Roland Littlewoodprofessor of anthropology and psychiatry, published a study supporting a social explanation of the zombie phenomenon in the medical journal The Lancet in I came to the conclusion that although it is unlikely that there is a single explanation for all cases where zombies are recognised by locals in Haiti, the mistaken identification of a wandering mentally ill stranger by bereaved relatives is the most likely explanation in many cases.

People with a chronic schizophrenic illness, brain damage or learning disability are not uncommon in rural Haiti, and they would be particularly likely to be identified as zombies. Pulliam and Fonseca and Walz trace the zombie lineage back to ancient Mesopotamia. If you do not open the gate for me to Zombies in, I shall smash the door and shatter the bolt, I shall smash the doorpost and overturn the doors, I shall raise up the dead and they shall eat the living: And the dead shall outnumber the living!

She repeats this same threat in a slightly modified form in the Epic of Gilgamesh. One of the first books to expose Western culture to the concept of the voodoo zombie was The Magic Island by W. This is the sensationalized account of a Zombies who encounters voodoo cults in Haiti and their resurrected thralls.

Time commented that the book "introduced 'zombi' into U. Lovecraft to Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein drawing on European folklore of the undead. Here zombies are depicted as mindless, unthinking henchmen under the spell of an evil magician.

Zombies, often still using this voodoo-inspired rationale, were initially uncommon in cinema, but their appearances continued sporadically through the s to the s, with films including I Walked with a Zombie and Plan 9 from Outer Space Frankenstein by Mary Shelleywhile not a zombie novel per seforeshadows many 20th century ideas about zombies in that the resurrection of the dead is portrayed as a scientific process rather than a mystical one and that the resurrected dead are degraded and more violent than their living selves.

Frankensteinpublished inhas its roots in European folklore, whose tales of the vengeful dead also informed the evolution of the modern conception of the vampire. Though their works could not be properly considered zombie fiction, the supernatural tales of Bierce Zombies Poe would prove influential on later writers such as H. Lovecraftby Lovecraft's own admission. In the s and early s, Lovecraft wrote several novellae that explored the undead theme.

Notably, the resurrected dead are uncontrollable, mostly mute, primitive and extremely violent; though they are not referred to as zombies, their portrayal was prescient, anticipating the modern conception of zombies by several decades.

Romero would later claim as an influence. Richard Matheson 's novel I Am Legendalthough classified as a vampire story, had a great impact on the zombie genre by way of George A. The novel and its film adaptation, The Last Man on Earthwhich concern a lone human survivor waging war against a world of vampires, would by Romero's own admission greatly influence his low-budget film Night of the Living Deada work that was more influential on the concept of zombies than any literary or cinematic work before it.

There has been an evolution in the zombie archetype from supernatural to scientific themes. I Am Legend and Night of the Living Dead began the shift away from Haitian dark magic, though did not give scientific explanations for zombie origins.

A more decisive shift towards scientific themes came with the Resident Evil video game series in the late s, which gave more realistic scientific explanations for zombie origins while drawing on modern science and technologysuch as biological weaponrygenetic manipulation and parasitic symbiosis.

This became the standard approach for explaining zombie origins in popular fiction that followed Resident Evil. There has also been shift towards an action approach, which has led to another evolution of the zombie archietype, the "fast zombie" or running zombie.

In contrast to Romero's classic slow zombies, "fast zombies" can run, are more aggressive and are often more intelligent. This type of zombie has origins in s Japanese horror video games. InCapcom 's survival horror video game Resident Evil featured zombie dogs that run towards the player. Later the same year, Sega 's arcade shooter The House of the Dead introduced running human zombies, who run towards the player and can also jump and swim.

The running human zombies introduced in The House of the Dead video games became the basis for the "fast zombies" that became popular in zombie films during the early 21st century, starting with 28 Days Laterthe Resident Evil and House of the Dead films and the Dawn of the Dead remake. These films also adopted an action approach to the zombie concept, which was also influenced by the Resident Evil and House of the Dead video games.

Films featuring zombies have been a part of cinema since the s, with White Zombie directed by Victor Halperin in being one of the earliest examples. Romero 's Night of the Living Deadthe zombie trope began to be increasingly linked to consumerism and consumer culture. Voodoo-related zombie themes have also appeared in espionage or adventure-themed works outside the horror genre.

For example, the original Jonny Quest series and the James Bond novel Live and Let Die as well as its film adaptation both feature Caribbean villains who falsely claim the voodoo power of zombification in order to keep others in fear of them.

George Romero's modern zombie archetype in Night of the Living Dead was influenced by several earlier zombie-themed films, including White ZombieRevolt of the Zombies and The Plague of Zombies Zombies The modern conception of the zombie owes itself almost entirely to George A.


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