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Tuesday 6 July Wednesday 7 July Thursday 8 July Friday 9 July Saturday 10 July Sunday 11 July Monday 12 July Tuesday 13 July Wednesday 14 July Thursday 15 July Friday 16 July Saturday 17 July Sunday 18 July Monday 19 July Tuesday 20 July Wednesday 21 July Thursday 22 July Friday 23 July Saturday 24 July Sunday 25 July Monday 26 July Tuesday 27 July Wednesday 28 July Thursday 29 July Friday 30 July Saturday 31 July Sunday 1 August Monday 2 August Tuesday 3 August Wednesday 4 August Thursday 5 August Friday 6 August Saturday 7 August Sunday 8 August Monday 9 August Tuesday 10 August Wednesday 11 August Thursday 12 August Friday 13 August Saturday 14 August Sunday 15 August Monday 16 August Tuesday 17 August Wednesday 18 August Thursday 19 August Friday 20 August Saturday 21 August Sunday 22 August Monday 23 August Tuesday 24 August Wednesday 25 August Thursday 26 August Friday 27 August Saturday 28 August Sunday 29 August Monday 30 August Tuesday 31 August Wednesday 1 September Thursday 2 September Friday 3 September Saturday 4 September Sunday 5 September Monday 6 September Tuesday 7 September Wednesday 8 September Thursday 9 September Friday 10 September Saturday 11 September Sunday 12 September Monday 13 September Tuesday 14 September However, the term ayak is used with different meanings in traditional folk music circles.

Many sources discuss this relationship between makam and melody. We see that saz poets in the rural area, in small communities, use the term makam to an extent. These concepts contain some specific melodic patterns. The makam-hava types that are commonly used are generally the same around the country.

However they are far more numerous in the Eastern Anatolian region. During the performance of sample melodies, we observed that their makam knowledge was not parallel to Traditional Classical Turkish Music makams. Makam concerns these pitch centralizations, melodic phenomena that occur around the centers, and the relationships that are built between centers by the melody. Moreover, the locations and positions of these centralizations and relationships within the TFS in terms of their beginnings and endings exhibit the fundamental characteristic referred to by the term makam.

A makam is a pitch-melody combination with a singular character, and this character of being singular imparts uniqueness to it. After the light of all datas above, we also think that makam concept have to be expressed with FTSs in saz model. Thus, all makams outline specific melodic formations and their positional peculiarities in the fret system. As a foundational concept, makam describes and classifies the special positions and the formations of the melodies in definite tunings.

Therefore, when we talk about makam, we specifically refer to at least one of these basic features: i any fret centralization in the traditional fret system and tuning; ii a typical melodic formation that is shaped around a central fret; iii a typical usage of one or more incomplete note s 9 in a tuning.

Essentially, the concept of makam- tunes is not structural, but positional, motional, and most importantly relational. Understanding of these tunes as fixed or stereotyped melodies or melodic patterns is neither sufficient nor correct Signell, Additionally, the melodic patterns are used in almost every form in Turkish music. New lyrics are attached to a well-known tune from a master to create a new piece Uslu, The thinking here is that since music is the common property of the people, this does not constitute plagiarism.

Melodies may sometimes change depending on the musical culture of the location where they are re-composed. In this context, a melody can spread out from its 9 Nim perde Incomplete note : The frets that constitute after tuning change of a tam perde.

Original compositions are more important in Turkish classical Music. One of the frequently used melodic patterns in Turkish Folk Music are structures called hayal image or hayalleme imagination Parlak,p. Melodic patterns are frequently used in the living traditional music of many regions in the world. The term dromoi that is used for makam-like structures in Greek music also expresses melodic formulae13 and progressions Pennanen, Since in traditional Javanese Gamelan music, elaborating instruments are one of the divisions of instruments panerusan instrumentsthere are aurally learned melodic patterns.

A terminology has emerged for pattern types in this musical culture. Terms such as cengkok, wiletan, lagu, etc. We also find melodic patterning in different polyphonic musical cultures. A technique that is especially used to create multi-part structures in vocal music is ostinato. Ostinato is a type of polyphony where a melody that is shorter than the main melody is used as a static support for the main melody with certain rhythmic patterns, in one or more parts.

While ostinato consists of melodic movements, it is a strong reference point in the scale for the main tune to lean on, like a drone. Additionally, it provides rhythmic organization in the music, and offers a rhythmic reference point. Ostinato is present in almost every musical culture with a polyphonic tradition. Melodic patterns are also observed in canonic polyphonic traditions such as Lithuanian sutaritines and North Japanese Ainu music Jordania,p.

Examination of the written sources of Western art music reveals that melodic patterns were always present in music since the monophonic Gregorian Chant era.

The rule was to build a polyphonic piece based on an existing melody cantus firmus Hanning,p. The melodic patterns that could be present with different rhythmic patterns in different parts after the invention of the organum, and began to be used more systematically along with the emergence of the motet genre.

Influenced by the Ars Nova style after the Renaissance, and especially the structure 12 Qupais are short tunes that are performed at medium tempos, and counted with fixed beats. The repeating rhythmic units are called talea, and the repeating melodic units are called color Hanning, p.

Musical genres such as caccia and rondellus Mann,p. Ricercare, developed based on motet script, is based on determining melodic motifs successively Hanning,p.

This form usually carries many motifs. Single motif repetitions led to the fugal composition. This melodic imitation approach was developed in time. Canzona, a genre that was based on vocal styles, is also an example of the imitation script. Additionally, fugal composition was also used in parts of pieces in genres such as toccata, fantasia, and praeludium.

Fugue, as a musical genre, had its golden days in the Baroque Period, with the works of J. Bach Kaya, This makes the melodic patterns important compositional tools for the creation of a polyphonic texture. This approach gradually lost traction in terms of polyphonic texture during the Classical Period, and were used for different purposes in the musical pieces that artists applied a homophonic texture in the following periods.

Musical pieces in the Romantic Period, during which programmed music was developing, associate a melodic pattern with a certain character, and use it in different parts of the music in a manner reminiscent of this character. A similar use is seen as leitmotif in the work of Wagner, who used different motifs for different characters or concepts. Franz Liszt uses motifs that he calls motto- themes, that are transformed through the compositional method called thematic transformation Hanning, With the deformation of all the elements of music in the 20th century, melodic pattern usage also saw serious transformations.

Interest was provided by inverting an upward leap became a downward leap, for exampleretrograding lines were played 'backwards' and retrograde-inverting, as well as by manipulating other musical parameters such as tone-color instrumentation.

Wilson, p. The improvisation based jazz genre that developed out of the vocal based blues music heavily includes melodic patterns Kaplan, Wilson discusses the use of patterns in jazz: The various styles of jazz are musically definable largely in terms of the patterns upon which they rely for unity and expression. Furthermore, a study of the drums, bass, piano and melodic instrument or voice would reveal that each instrument has a specific role that is based largely on the type of pattern it performs.

Wilson, The most recommended method for good jazz improvisations is the practice of melodic patterns. Some musicians think that Album) increased use of these lowers the quality of improvisation Taylor, However, there are still many books that include melodic pattern practices that may be helpful for improvisation. Additionally, there are many workbooks for specific instruments. All the efforts to expand this melodic vocabulary show the importance of melodic patterns in jazz music.

Sometimes they are even playing the same things in the same places. Werner,p. The parts of saz are called by many names. Table 2. This is why it is difficult to pinpoint the origin of saz, and to determine where it's born, and in which directions it spread out.

The main reason for the variety of opinions concerning the origins of the saz family is that saz-derived instruments are identified at various locations at varying times. The oldest of these sources come from Mesopotamia Turnbull, 14 In addition to views that suggest that saz was derived from Central Asia's kopuz, coming to Anatolia to develop further, views that argue that the shape of this saz was first conceived in Anatolia, Mesopotamia and neighbouring ancient civilizations also exist.

Lawergren visualized the existence of the lute in ten regions of the world through charts with a striking method, based on previous studies on the existence of the necked lute in historical documents See Appendix A.

These charts demonstrate that the ratio of the number of lute images from historical remains to the total number of string instruments that were identified varied over historical periods. Lawergren makes the following observations based on these charts : According to Lawergrennecked lutes emerged in Mesopotamia and Iran around 2, BCE. Their numbers increased in Mesopotamia until about 1, BCE. The only type of string instrument in Iran in the 2nd millennium BCE was the lute.

Necked lutes were also spread very wide in Anatolia The Ancient Greek civilization adopted instruments such as the harp or the lyre, did not use lute-type instruments. Lute-type instruments disappeared in Anatolia in the period that it was under Greek dominance. Lawergren suggests that this may be caused by a prohibition in the period A while later, Central Asia that was protected from Hellenistic influences became the center for the necked lute.

The ratio of lutes in this region increased from 1, BCE progressively until the present. According to Lawergrenthe necked lutes probably arrived at Central Asia via the Silk Road, or were reinvented here and later returned to its birthplace with the migration of Central Asian tribes towards Iran and Anatolia Lawergren,p. Review of the literature reveals many sources that trace the ancestry of the saz to the Central Asian kopuz. The heavy presence of saz-like instruments in Central Asia, and the existence of many similar aspects between the playing styles, fretting system 17, musical and morphological characteristics of Central Asian sazs and the Anatolian saz are emphasized as supportive of this argument.

Kopuz types played with fingers or bows were one of the most important elements of old-Turkic Shamanism Parlak, Shamans perform their shamanic acts with a drum or kopuz. None of these sazs have a fret that corresponds to the diminished five range in relation to the open string. The word saz refers to reeds that grow in swamps is of Turkish origin.

However, it was also semantically expanded to act as a synonym for poet. Modern poets are sometimes referred to as ozans. The term saz gained adoption in the daily language after it appeared in folk literature. There are many idioms and proverbs about the saz. The act of tying. A saz with three double strings, that is played with a pick. Beam, girder, etc. Another view argues that closing tying the body of the saz with wood instead of leather may have given birth to this name Parlak,p.

Additionally, the term saz is also used for "instrument," in order to refer to all instruments in modern Turkish. However these terms were not known, nor adopted by the people of Anatolia. Moreover, "In the demotic colloquial axis, the term saz was never used for any other instrument for example reed pipe or piano " Ersoy,p. Today, many people from many ethnic origins such as the Turk, Kurd, Armenian, Arab, Greek, Georgian, Circassian, and Laz people, who maintain their different musical cultures play saz.

While the musical traditions of the Laz, Arab, Circassian and Shafi Kurd peoples do not employ the saz, the instrument is known, listened to, liked and even played in these communities Duygulu, Almost all terms related to the saz were associated with a religious essence and became symbols.

Traditionally, the hair- sinew- or silk-stringed saz was played without a pick Parlak,p. The greatest change of style that the Anatolian musical culture underwent was in the playing style of saz, after metallic strings began to be used. While this material was easily obtained by the urban population, didn't reach rural areas until much later, and it took much time to be widely adapted. Additionally, the adoption of the pick by the Anatolian people, who are strictly bound in tradition and are reluctant to let it go, also took time and was not easy.

The first reflections of this phenomenon, which emerged in the Ottoman court and its surroundings, were observed in certain hubs in nearby cities that were popular regions for the Ottomans. Parlak,p. These policies were the fruits of ideas that sprouted during the fall of the Ottoman Empire, and they changed not only the playing style of the saz, but also its morphological structure, timbre, fretting system and ultimately its music.

The current of nationalism that emerged after the French Revolution deeply influenced the Ottoman State, and caused its constituent elements to declare their independences and their secessions. The Turkism ideology that developed in response ideologically influenced the founding elements of the Republic of Turkey. This period saw efforts to modernize especially the court music and military music through polyphonization, but folk music, which was not part of the urban culture, was not really affected.

In contrast, the founding ideology of the Republic was the idea that cultural modernization had to be based on "folk culture. Thus began the rapid work of compiling folk music melodies. All these products that were compiled from various regions and cultural traditions of Anatolia were included in the "Turkish Folk Music" category, and the first terminologies of the ideological approach to the subject were established in the scope of this concept Parlak,p.

Ankara State Conservatory accelerated the compilation studies inand invited Paul Hindemith and Bela Bartok to Turkey to guide these studies. Folk music met radio broadcasting in the explained radio programs broadcast by Sadi Yaver Ataman in Folk music gained importance through the works of the Turkish classical Music group under the direction of Mesut Cemil until However, musician groups were separated a while later, based on the idea that the simultaneous execution of these two types of music was improper.

The musical ensemble that carried out these works was called "Yurttan Sesler Korosu" Choir of Sounds from the Homeland Parlak,p. The only instrument that accompanied the performances of "Yurttan Sesler Korosu" was the saz for many years. In conclusion, the musical preferences of state institutions directly influenced the preferences of the public. Still in this period, saz continued to change more rapidly due to the increase in number of luthiers influenced by the radio first in Ankara, then in Istanbul.

This change occurred due to the requests of radio performers, who actually performed ensemble music, in addition to local artists. The first of the developments and modifications of saz was the standardization of the dimensions and structural characteristics of the differing dimensions and structures of saz in various regions.

The saz, which was shaped in a small structural form in the nomad rural culture throughout its history, began to grow in size in cities Parlak,p. As a result, the neck was elongated in a manner that will provide the D note in the highest fret of first string.

Different sizes of saz were played together in order to achieve different timbres in the band. Thus, a "saz family" that is suitable for picking emerged Moreover, the required volume for the performance of saz caused the number of strings on pick- played sazs to increase Additionally, the number of frets of these sazs that were used in the ensemble that tried to melt all melodies from all regions in a single pot using the available orchestral abilities also increased in time based on requirements The usage of the saz family in the ensemble can be described as "monophonic texture" in terms of musical texture.

As a result of these modifications, the timbre and sound system, which are among the most important factors that determine the character of traditional music, also changed. Especially when luthiers started to manufacture sazs that are suitable for picking with no regard to pickless playing caused the public to adopt picking techniques in time.

However the fact that this picking perception and musical approach were adopted in a large structure such as Yurttan Sesler without thoroughly investigating their origins, localities, and regional validities are the main reasons of the radio performance and perception in which heavy balances are felt, but the 30 For detailed information, see: Chapter 2. Later, other choirs that were established based on this choir's influence34, and Turkish Music conservatories were also influenced by these choices.

Some folk artists found the opportunity to embark on solo careers in the emerging market conditions. Saz also had an important role in the arabesk genre, which arose from "market music. Arabesk music gave rise to a new performance style where saz performance diverged from traditional performance styles, and where techniques from buzuk, bouzouki, Spanish guitar, and later even sitar were adapted to picking styles. The electric saz was an instrument inspired by the electric guitar, "invented" by mounting pickups to the saz.

It was used in the "Anatolian Rock" genre, but was quickly adopted by arabesk musicians due to its ability to adapt to different performances, and by wedding musicians of Anatolia due to its high volume. The timbre, volume level, playing style and shape of this instrument was not similar to saz, and was not generally adopted by traditional folk music performers. By the s, developments such as the polarization and congregationism in the society directly affected folk music and saz performances.

In parallel, the musical tradition of this structure, which is one of its most special tools of expression, came to be heard in Turkey with its qualities. This development was later 35 A tuning system. For detailed information, see: Chapter 2. Even today, similar albums are produced although the performance and arrangement structures vary according to the day's conditions.

The inclusion of saz in the Arabesk movement that was popularized in these years, and the widespread use of electric saz, caused "non-traditional" modifications to saz picking techniques.

Pickless playing techniques that are performed on traditional, small saz forms in rural areas reflected on the large saz form used in urban music in such a musical environment, and during a long process from the s to today. This process is directly relevant to our subject, and will be examined in detail in Chapter 2. In conclusion, today there are many different approaches to playing saz.

For example the term "long-neckist," is generally used by performers who prefer the short-necked saz. As we discussed in the previous chapter, it is believed that the main playing style of the saz is pickless, and that pick playing style began after the adoption of metallic strings Parlak, All the strings of the saz are strummed in the PT, and this technique also consists of various strumming techniques.

According to Parlakp. The typical position for PT on the saz is the position in which the right hand is over the joint area where the neck and the body come together. It signifies two hand tapping technique. Only the inner faces of the right hand fingers are used to produce sound. Additionally, in contrast to PT, sounds are not produced by strumming all the strings but by plucking only one or two strings with right hand fingers.

Although the use of pickless playing techniques, which were almost extinct before the s, and entered a period of "rediscovery" in the s, increased in our day, pick playing technique is still the dominant playing style.

Figure 2. Tezene is a Turkish word, and is also colloquially called tazane, tarzene, teyzine, tazane, etc. Pick- playing technique had its golden age in the 20th Century, and was developed by many performers in the era to reach its current form.

Although it varies according to personal preferences or the desired timbre, in pick-playing the pick is held approximately in the middle of the body Fig. Today, however, this term is being used to encompass all sazs, especially in Anatolia, after sazs from different musical cultures of Anatolia began to be used in professional performances on stage or in the studio. It is possible to encounter the members of the saz family in Anatolia's various musical cultures under various names.

While there are sazs that are named after their number of strings, dimensions and tuning systems, some sazs have unique names. One of the important factors in naming sazs is the number of strings.

The term cura means "small", and is used to identify small-sized sazs, and other instruments such as the zurna clarionin reference to their sizes. The term baz is used to identify large sazs. Another naming convention is based on the material from which the saz is made. These sazs 46 Kabak : gourd EN. This is a saz made of gourd, which is usually played by kids, but that also has adult versions.

These sazs differ from each other in every way. Some of these sazs have a body shaped like an axe and are called baltasaz49 Parlak,p. This is the saz family that lives among the Anatolian people. As an extension of the desire of "playing ensemble music" of the choirs that were established after the Republic such as "Yurttan Sesler"the saz family was reconsidered, and a size-based standardization was sought. All three of them have very different sazs, in terms of structure, dimensions, fretting They can't come together to play a song decently.

Even if they do, it doesn't sound good, they can't play harmoniously. We want to join many instruments in order to establish a large band called Yurttan Sesler Ensemble. Only you can help us in this. This made him very happy. I proceeded to make a list of what he wanted.

This ensured that the standards were immediately adopted all around the country. This usage was first adopted in the radio, then in the conservatories influenced by the radio. However this theoretical standardization did not exactly fit the practice due to the accompaniment approach that later developed based on the voice timbre of vocalists Parlak, While some of these sazs were only used personally, others became popular and socially adopted.

One of the most important examples of these popular sazs is the form of saz to which electro-magnetic pickups were mounted, called electrosaz, which was adopted in popular music. The idea of using more than three rows of strings on the saz is a very new development.

This development picked the interest of artists who perform "electrosaz pick-playing techniques," or "pickless saz playing techniques," and separately developed in both groups, leading to the emergence of sazs with different qualities. Regarding the electrosaz, the first development was the emergence of 4- or 5-stringed sazs in order to be able to use sounds with lower pitches in the melody. Versions of these sazs with eight, ten, etc. Another recent development in saz is the emergence of instruments that are built by joining two or more sazs.

The inventor of these sazs that offer great advantages, especially in stage performances, is unknown. The primary material was horse hair. The second most important string material after horse hair was animal gut. These strings were obtained by processing the guts of various animals such as squirrels, sheep, wolves and donkeys, and were too delicate to be played with picks.

Another material used before metal was silk. The silken strings are observed in the Ozbek and Uyghur dutars Central Asian saz derivatives even today. The use of metallic strings on the saz was revolutionary, and changed not only the timbre of the saz, but also its playing style. The initial preferences for metallic strings were brass and copper strings, but Album) relatively weak strings were replaced by steel strings.

Copper strings are still used in the tenbur, a widely played Iranian saz. Parlak suggested that the metallic strings were first used in Anatolia, based on the level of development of structural forms and playing styles. The adaptation of metallic strings to saz caused the emergence of the concept of "pick," in the tradition of saz that was only played with fingers for centuries.

While the approach of three rows of strings that was used in Anatolia for a long time still lives on in pickles played sazs, multiple strings began to be used for each row after the pick was adopted. These methods were applied to increase the volume of the saz's sound, beginning with 2 strings for each row, then sazs with 3 9 stringed sazeven 4 12 stringed saz strings to a row, or sazs with different string combinations appeared.

These practices were later abandoned since they made performance more difficult, and the number of strings was decreased Parlak,p. Cim teli was the name given to 0. The use of these strings that were not resistant against pick strikes and that were easily affected by temperature changes was abandoned in time. Another important change in the saz's timbre occurred with the adoption of strings called "bam string" instead of yellow strings.

Bam string is produced by winding gilded wire over steel strings. The gauges of all three materials are very important. Some bam strings are as thick as 1 mm. These strings are also called bambam and are usually used in sazs with large bodies, such as the divan saz. The bam string is usually preferred in the string raw that is responsible for the dem drone function.

Having the dem sound in the lowest part is a requirement, especially for zurna performers of Anatolia. String preferences for finger-strummed sazs developed differently. While seven-stringed sazs featuring both bam and steel strings were used with hand-playing techniques following their adoption in cities, this was later abandoned Saz players generally use strings that are or claimed to be manufactured specifically for the saz in their instruments.

Some performers may prefer strings that are designed for instruments such as the electric guitar, acoustic guitar, etc. Picken wrote "Folk Instruments of Turkey" based on a wide organological review of Turkey, and classified sazs with frets that he identified in Anatolia as incompletely chromatic, while he classified sazs with frets as chromatic, sazs with 19 or more frets as chromatic including 2 microtonal intervals.

He also indicates that rural sazs, as a "general rule" have an incompletely chromatic fretting order. His brief statement implies that scaling is chromatic, but he mentions of that, on several instruments examined, individual frets yielded noted flattened by a comma or more in relation to their nominal pitch; for example b, e, for c may be a comma flat Picken,p.

Parlak also reports that in the Republican Era, such sazs with a different number of frets were usually tempered, however that the pitches of especially the B and F frets were lower in a certain amount. This system seemed very common in the Ottoman music culture for centuries; it is also the same today. These different fretting applications demonstrate that the saz culture was shaped in different ways in different areas in Anatolia in terms of TFS. Based on this data, it is possible to state that the number of frets and the use of microtonal intervals increase 56 In this figure, the symbol " " means small amount of sharpness, and the symbol " " means small amount of flatness.

Folk music researchers who wanted to annotate these modifications in performance, and who believed that it should be possible to represent microtonal intervals in notation began to investigate the recently applied and frequently debated Turkish classical Music theories. Even today, komas for sazs in the folk music community are represented with this notation.

This choice had important consequences, and caused the A tone to be considered movable, and not be fixed to any pitch. A consequence of this approach was the fact that frets of different sazs of various dimensions and tuning systems came to be known with the same "western note" names. Thus, the saz undertook the character of a transposing instrument. Consequently, saz became a "tanbur-like" instrument with many frets.

Today, the fretting system that contains "17 non-equal intervals in an octave" became standardized in sazs and is widely adopted. This fretting system contains all chromatic frets and it has some microtonal frets. The "17 non-equal intervals" system contains 18 frets in an octave, and 13 of these frets are adjusted according to the equal temperament system in the contemporary saz.

Consequently, the contemporary saz's fretboard consists of divided D or undivided U chromatic columns57 Fig. Chromatic columns on the fretboard become narrower as they approach the bridge where the fretboard and the body join. Mottola states that the distance between 57 Chromatic columns are the area between two chromatic frets in one string.

Divided and undivided chromatic columns are clearly seen in Figure 2. Another very important aspect of saz that differs from many other fretted instruments is that the frets are movable. This allows performers to adjust the frets according to their personal preferences, or the characteristics of the pieces that will be played especially the mictrotonal frets. The adjustment of microtonal frets in the contemporary saz is another matter of debate.

While the location of the microtonal fret in the divided chromatic column is standardized as the 2 koma flat, this value approximately corresponds to 44 cents. While it is not consistent with real data in this regard, it is used as an approximate value in line with the approach to "indicating the amount of koma with numbers above the accidentals" in the notation.

Microtonal frets apart from B 2 and F 3 are rarely used in notation. In PVT performance on contemporary sazs, performers usually refrain from using the fret that is considered to correspond to A 2 between the 16th and 17th intervals in Fig. The figure shows the frets, chromatic column numbers and types of the contemporary saz based on the "17 non-equal intervals in an octave" used by the PVT performers Fig. Factors that affect the selection of a tuning system are suitability to the type of melody that is played, the required root dem sound, and sometimes, the voice range of the vocalist, if vocals are accompanying the saz.

Taking the bottom string as "A," the middle string is tuned to the lower fifth "D," and the top string is tuned to the lower fourth "E. Contributing to the melody with the thumb on the top string without changing positions is also a defining characteristic.

The approach of playing songs with A tonic note open bottom stringthat became popular in radio-style playing causes problems in the timbre consistency of the performance due to the difficulty of obtaining the dem sound. Parlak states that it is difficult to obtain sound on gut and silk strings using this technique, and adds that PVT is non-existent technique on saz types that uses non- metallic strings, and that this technique only emerged after the adaptation of metallic 59 In Table 2. Notes with green and red don't have intervals more than one octave.

The fact that PVT is only known in the Teke region while other pickless playing techniques are widespread also supports Devacı - Z.Çağlar Namlı* - La Lune / Köy (CD argument. They can be performed using instruments or human voice. The throat is pressed on the front or sides of the throat. The finger is moved up and down on the throat during the song.

Some of the performers place their index and middle fingers on the opposite side of the throat, and similarly move them up and down during the song. Ergun,p. The pitch jumps are usually to fifth, fourth, third and second intervals. Throat playing is usually not a part of musical events that are attended by everyone. They are usually performed by two persons who stand at a distance.

Ergunpp. Thus, music is used as a means of courting between genders. However, from time to time, a garip transition towards the fourth grade D sound is made in this scale when descending from high pitches to lower pitches in the free sections of the tune. Although rare, the third degree C natural sound is sometimes converted to C sharp. His unique, concise, feeling-laden, enthusiastic expressions always make his strong style felt.

He addressed almost all of his region's tunes and almost reconstructed them. Characters of his melodies, his playing technique and forms of expressions make him a very important element in the transition between Asia and Anatolia. A region where the pickless playing tradition of Teke region is kept alive, and that produced many masters is Dirmil. While the pulled string can be 62 This figure is drawn by assuming A as the open string note of third top string.

Some performers adds more frets than showed in figure 2. In figure 2. These symbols represents : 1 : Left hand index finger, 2: Left hand middle finger, 3 : Left hand ring finger, 4 : Left hand little finger, i : Right hand index finger, o : Right hand middle finger. This fret is the fifth degree pitch of the open string. The repeating modules of a sequence are directional Benward and Saker,p. Figure 1. Korsakoff, op. Melodic pattern is also sometimes used to refer to motif, due to its repetitive nature Taylor, B.

The term melodic pattern in this study is defined as follows, in line with this interpretation: Melodic patterns are structures created by pitches that are homorhythmically sequenced laterally in the musical texture, and that are repeatable cyclically or through chromatic transposition or modal transposition to different pitches. In that regard, melodic patterns can be considered melodic raw materials.

Various ideas were presented in history on the definition of the scales, modes. The following is one of the widely adopted definitions of the term scale, which is one of the most important structures in melody organization: A sequence of notes in ascending or descending order of pitch. As a musicological concept, a scale is a sequence long enough to define unambiguously a mode, tonality, or some special linear construction, and that begins and ends where appropriate on the fundamental note of the tonality or mode; a scale, therefore, is usually thought of as having the compass of one or more octaves.

Drabkin,b Scales can consist of two to eight or more notes, and are commonly named after the number of notes they contain. Scales can similarly be classified according to the number of pitches they encompass in an octave.

Pentatonic scales contain 5 pitches in an octave, hexatonic scales contain 6, heptatonic scales contain 7, and octatonic scales contain 8 pitches Nettl,p. The major and minor scales that constitute the concept of tonality, the fundamental scales of Western classical music, are heptatonic scales. Greek modes historically have had a major role on the way these scales take their dominant position in the Western classical music. Yeprem,p. Adoption of the Aeolian and Ionian scales that are frequently used in preth Century secular music repertoires Yeprem,p.

Scales and modes constitute a very detailed subject with many different dimensions, in parallel with developments in jazz music theory, and the currents in contemporary music. With this approach, the most frequently used modes in jazz music are the modes of major scales, melodic minor scales, and harmonic minor scales.

According to contemporary modal theory, one of the methods chromatic method that heptatonic modes can generate is the combination of two different tetrachords through a connection Miller, a.

Accordingly, the heptatonic mode can be created as follows Equation 1. Tetrachord 1. The position of modes in relation to the main scale from which they are derived, and to other modes that are derived from the same scale never changes. Thus, when the tonic note is chromatically changed, the formula can be applied to obtain modes on different tones. This is why this method is also called the chromatic method Miller, a, p. The connector interval is the connecting interval that joins the two tetrachords, and can be a semitone, whole tone, or 3 semitones.

These tetrachords contain intervals with 1, 2 or 3 semitones. When the major scale itself is used modally, it is named the Ionian mode. The tetrachordal form of the major scale is as follows Equation 1. Accordingly, while the distance of the intervals in the major scale with the tonal note will be represented only with Arabic numerals, the distance of notes that are not in the scale will be represented by using the sharp or flat symbols along with the Arabic numeral Table 1.

Table 1. The modes of major scale built on the note C is also presented in the table Table 1. The major scale as presented as its Ionian mode in the modes table. Numbers under the staves shows interval between two degree in units of semitones. Connectors are represented between parentheses.

This is why it is also called the Aeolic minor Cangal,p. These are the melodic minor, and the harmonic minor scales. The harmonic minor scale is obtained by increasing the pitch of the seventh degree of the Aeolian scale in order to strengthen cadential points in minor musical pieces Jones,p.

The tetrachordal form of the scale is as follows Equation 1. Harmonic minor chords that are built upon the note C using the tetrachords and connection intervals in the harmonic minor scale and mode generation formula are presented in Table 1. This produces the formula for melodic minor scales. It is also called Ionian 3 due to the similarities between its sounds and the major scale. Since the melodic minor scale is an altered scale, its modes have different characteristics.

The melodic minor scale modes based on the note C are also presented in the Table 1. In addition to major, melodic minor, harmonic minor scales and modes, many heptatonic scales derived from these scales can be produced.

One of the common pentatonic scales is the major pentatonic scale, and its modes. The 5th mode of the major pentatonic scale is also known as the minor pentatonic scale Figure 1. The most commonly used ones among these are the symmetrical scales that exhibit symmetrical properties Figure 1. A scale that contains whole tones between all their degrees is a hexatonic scale known as the "whole tone scale" Figure 1. Symmetric octatonic scales are known as diminished scales, and they are called half-whole HW diminished scale Figure 1.

These scales are interconnected. This means that a scale built upon the second degree of a WH diminished scale is a HW diminished scale. A scale that contains semitones between all their degrees is a dodecatonic scale known as the "chromatic scale" Figure 1.

The concept of makam was considered and defined variously throughout history1. Suphi Ezgi, and that is commonly used in education today2.

Makam was defined in many different ways depending on the school in which the makam models are developed. Arel and A. Ezgi with the physics and mathematics contributions of Uzdilek came to be adopted as the primary model in education.

It is a specific form of the musical scale that exhibits its qualities through various proportions that constitutes it, and the arrangement of its intervals Yekta,p. In conclusion, misused terms that particularly spread out from radio people inexorably penetrated virtually all of the society, and the term ayak is but one example. Today, the fact that the term ayak as a synonym for the term makam in Classic Turkish Music is used in education and art institutions, textbooks, and even the most serious academic works!

However, the term ayak is used with different meanings in traditional folk music circles. Many sources discuss this relationship between makam and melody. We see that saz poets in the rural area, in small communities, use the term makam to an extent. These concepts contain some specific melodic patterns. The makam-hava types that are commonly used are generally the same around the country. However they are far more numerous in the Eastern Anatolian region. During the performance of sample melodies, we observed that their makam knowledge was not parallel to Traditional Classical Turkish Music makams.

Makam concerns these pitch centralizations, melodic phenomena that occur around the centers, and the relationships that are built between centers by the melody. Moreover, the locations and positions of these centralizations and relationships within the TFS in terms of their beginnings and endings exhibit the fundamental characteristic referred to by the term makam.

A makam is a pitch-melody combination with a singular character, and this character of being singular imparts uniqueness to it. After the light of all datas above, we also think that makam concept have to be expressed with FTSs in saz model.

Thus, all makams outline specific melodic formations and their positional peculiarities in the fret system. As a foundational concept, makam describes and classifies the special positions and the formations of the melodies in definite tunings.

Therefore, when we talk about makam, we specifically refer to at least one of these basic features: i any fret centralization in the traditional fret system and tuning; ii a typical melodic formation that is shaped around a central fret; iii a typical usage of one or more incomplete note s 9 in a tuning.

Essentially, the concept of makam- tunes is not structural, but positional, motional, and most importantly relational. Understanding of these tunes as fixed or stereotyped melodies or melodic patterns is neither sufficient nor correct Signell, Additionally, the melodic patterns are used in almost every form in Turkish music. New lyrics are attached to a well-known tune from a master to create a new piece Uslu, The thinking here is that since music is the common property of the people, this does not constitute plagiarism.

Melodies may sometimes change depending on the musical culture of the location where they are re-composed. In this context, a melody can spread out from its 9 Nim perde Incomplete note : The frets that constitute after tuning change of a tam perde. Original compositions are more important in Turkish classical Music.

One of the frequently used melodic patterns in Turkish Folk Music are structures called hayal image or hayalleme imagination Parlak,p. Melodic patterns are frequently used in the living traditional music of many regions in the world. The term dromoi that is used for makam-like structures in Greek music also expresses melodic formulae13 and progressions Pennanen, Since in traditional Javanese Gamelan music, elaborating instruments are one of the divisions of instruments panerusan instrumentsthere are aurally learned melodic patterns.

A terminology has emerged for pattern types in this musical culture. Terms such as cengkok, wiletan, lagu, etc. We also find melodic patterning in different polyphonic musical cultures. A technique that is especially used to create multi-part structures in vocal music is ostinato.

Ostinato is a type of polyphony where a melody that is shorter than the main melody is used as a static support for the main melody with certain rhythmic patterns, in one or more parts. While ostinato consists of melodic movements, it is a strong reference point in the scale for the main tune to lean on, like a drone. Additionally, it provides rhythmic organization in the music, and offers a rhythmic reference point. Ostinato is present in almost every musical culture with a polyphonic tradition.

Melodic patterns are also observed in canonic polyphonic traditions such as Lithuanian sutaritines and North Japanese Ainu music Jordania,p.

Examination of the written sources of Western art music reveals that melodic patterns were always present in music since the monophonic Gregorian Chant era. The rule was to build a polyphonic piece based on an existing melody cantus firmus Hanning,p. The melodic patterns that could be present with different rhythmic patterns in different parts after the invention of the organum, and began to be used more systematically along with the emergence of the motet genre.

Influenced by the Ars Nova style after the Renaissance, and especially the structure 12 Qupais are short tunes that are performed at medium Devacı - Z.Çağlar Namlı* - La Lune / Köy (CD, and counted with fixed beats. The repeating rhythmic units are called talea, and the repeating melodic units are called color Hanning, p. Musical genres such as caccia and rondellus Mann,p. Ricercare, developed based on motet script, is based on determining melodic motifs successively Hanning,p.

This form usually carries many motifs. Single motif repetitions led to the fugal composition. This melodic imitation approach was developed in time. Canzona, a genre that was based on vocal styles, is also an example of the imitation script.

Additionally, fugal composition was also used in parts of pieces in genres such as toccata, fantasia, and praeludium. Fugue, as a musical genre, had its golden days in the Baroque Period, with the works of J. Bach Kaya, This makes the melodic patterns important compositional tools for the creation of a polyphonic texture.

This approach gradually lost traction in terms of polyphonic texture during the Classical Period, and were used for different purposes in the musical pieces that artists applied a homophonic texture in the following periods. Musical pieces in the Romantic Period, during which programmed music was developing, associate a melodic pattern with a certain character, and use it in different parts of the music in a manner reminiscent of this character.

A similar use is seen as leitmotif in the work of Wagner, who used different motifs for different characters or concepts. Franz Liszt uses motifs that he calls motto- themes, that are transformed through the compositional method called thematic transformation Hanning, With the deformation of all the elements of music in the 20th century, melodic pattern usage also saw serious transformations.

Interest was provided by inverting an upward leap became a downward leap, for exampleretrograding lines were played 'backwards' and retrograde-inverting, as well as by manipulating other musical parameters such as tone-color instrumentation. Wilson, p. The improvisation based jazz genre that developed out of the vocal based blues music heavily includes melodic patterns Kaplan, Wilson discusses the use of patterns in jazz: The various styles of jazz are musically definable largely in terms of the patterns upon which they rely for unity and expression.

Furthermore, a study of the drums, bass, piano and melodic instrument or voice would reveal that each instrument has a specific role that is based largely on the type of pattern it performs.

Wilson, The most recommended method for good jazz improvisations is the practice of melodic patterns. Some musicians think that the increased use of these lowers the quality of improvisation Taylor, However, there are still many books that include melodic pattern practices that may be helpful for improvisation.

Additionally, there are many workbooks for specific instruments. All the efforts to expand this melodic vocabulary show the importance of melodic patterns in jazz music. Sometimes they are even playing the same things in the same places. Werner,p. The parts of saz are called by many names. Table 2. This is why it is difficult to pinpoint the origin of saz, and to determine where it's born, and in which directions it spread out.

The main reason for the variety of opinions concerning the origins of the saz family is that saz-derived instruments are identified at various locations at varying times.

The oldest of these sources come from Mesopotamia Turnbull, 14 In addition to views that suggest that saz was derived from Central Asia's kopuz, coming to Anatolia Album) develop further, views that argue that the shape of this saz was first conceived in Anatolia, Mesopotamia and neighbouring ancient civilizations also exist.

Lawergren visualized the existence of the lute in ten regions of the world through charts with a striking method, based on previous studies on the existence of the necked lute in historical documents See Appendix A.

These charts demonstrate that the ratio of the number of lute images from historical remains to the total number of string instruments that were identified varied over historical periods. Lawergren makes the following observations based on these charts : According to Lawergrennecked lutes emerged in Mesopotamia and Iran around 2, BCE. Their numbers increased in Mesopotamia until about 1, BCE. The only type of string instrument in Iran in the 2nd millennium BCE was the lute.

Necked lutes were also spread very wide in Anatolia The Ancient Greek civilization adopted instruments such as the harp or the lyre, did not use lute-type instruments. Lute-type instruments disappeared in Anatolia in the period that it was under Greek dominance.

Lawergren suggests that this may be caused by a prohibition in the period A while later, Central Asia that was protected from Hellenistic influences became the center for the necked lute. The ratio of lutes in this region increased from 1, BCE progressively until the present. According to Lawergrenthe necked lutes probably arrived at Central Asia via the Silk Road, or were reinvented here and later returned to its birthplace with the migration of Central Asian tribes towards Iran and Anatolia Lawergren,p.

Review of the literature reveals many sources that trace the ancestry of the saz to the Central Asian kopuz. The heavy presence of saz-like instruments in Central Asia, and the existence of many similar aspects between the playing styles, fretting system 17, musical and morphological characteristics of Central Asian sazs and the Anatolian saz are emphasized as supportive of this argument.

Kopuz types played with fingers or bows were one of the most important elements of old-Turkic Shamanism Parlak, Shamans perform their shamanic acts with a drum or kopuz. None of these sazs have a fret that corresponds to the diminished five range in relation to the open string. The word saz refers to reeds that grow in swamps is of Turkish origin.

However, it was also semantically expanded to act as a synonym for poet. Modern poets are sometimes referred to as ozans. The term saz gained adoption in the daily language after it appeared in folk literature. There are many idioms and proverbs about the saz.

The act of tying. A saz with three double strings, that is played with a pick. Beam, girder, etc. Another view argues that closing tying the body of the saz with wood instead of leather may have given birth to this name Parlak,p. Additionally, the term saz is also used for "instrument," in order to refer to all instruments in modern Turkish. However these terms were not known, nor adopted by the people of Anatolia.

Moreover, "In the demotic colloquial axis, the term saz was never used for any other instrument for example reed pipe or piano " Ersoy,p. Today, many people from many ethnic origins such as the Turk, Kurd, Armenian, Arab, Greek, Georgian, Circassian, and Laz people, who maintain their different musical cultures play saz.

While the musical traditions of the Laz, Arab, Circassian and Shafi Kurd peoples do not employ the saz, the instrument is known, listened to, liked and even played in these communities Duygulu, Almost all terms related to the saz were associated with a religious essence and became symbols. Traditionally, the hair- sinew- or silk-stringed saz was played without a pick Parlak,p. The greatest change of style that the Anatolian musical culture underwent was in the playing style of saz, after metallic strings began to be used.

While this material was easily obtained by the urban population, didn't reach rural areas until much later, and it took much time to be widely adapted. Additionally, the adoption of the pick by the Anatolian people, who are strictly bound in tradition and are reluctant to let it go, also took time and was not easy. The first reflections of this phenomenon, which emerged in the Ottoman court and its surroundings, were observed in certain hubs in nearby cities that were popular regions for the Ottomans.

Parlak,p. These policies were the fruits of ideas that sprouted during the fall of the Ottoman Empire, and they changed not only the playing style of the saz, but also its morphological structure, timbre, fretting system and ultimately its music. The current of nationalism that emerged after the French Revolution deeply influenced the Ottoman State, and caused its constituent elements to declare their independences and their secessions.

The Turkism ideology that developed in response ideologically influenced the founding elements of the Republic of Turkey. This period saw efforts to modernize especially the court music and military music through polyphonization, but folk music, which was not part of the urban culture, was not really affected. In contrast, the founding ideology of the Republic was the idea that cultural modernization had to be based on "folk culture.

Thus began the rapid work of compiling folk music melodies. All these products that were compiled from various regions and cultural traditions of Anatolia were included in the "Turkish Folk Music" category, and the first terminologies of the ideological approach to the subject were established in the scope of this concept Parlak,p.

Ankara State Conservatory accelerated the compilation studies inand invited Paul Hindemith and Bela Bartok to Turkey to guide these studies. Folk music met radio broadcasting in the explained radio programs broadcast by Sadi Yaver Ataman in Folk music gained importance through the works of the Turkish classical Music group under the direction of Mesut Cemil until However, musician groups were separated a while later, based on the idea that the simultaneous execution of these two types of music was improper.

The musical ensemble that carried out these works was called "Yurttan Sesler Korosu" Choir of Sounds from the Homeland Parlak,p. The only instrument that accompanied the performances of "Yurttan Sesler Korosu" was the saz for many years.

In conclusion, the musical preferences of state institutions directly influenced the preferences of the public. Still in this period, saz continued to change more rapidly due to the increase in number of luthiers influenced by the radio first in Ankara, then in Istanbul.

This change occurred due to the requests of radio performers, who actually performed ensemble music, in addition to local artists. The first of the developments and modifications of saz was the standardization of the dimensions and structural characteristics of the differing dimensions and structures of saz in various regions. The saz, which was shaped in a small structural form in the nomad rural culture throughout its history, began to grow in size in cities Parlak,p.

As a result, the neck was elongated in a manner that will provide the D note in the highest fret of first string. Different sizes of saz were played together in order to achieve different timbres in the band. Thus, a "saz family" that is suitable for picking emerged Moreover, the required volume for the performance of saz caused the number of strings on pick- played sazs to increase Additionally, the number of frets of these sazs that were used in the ensemble that tried to melt all melodies from all regions in a single pot using the available orchestral abilities also increased in time based on requirements The usage of the saz family in the ensemble can be described as "monophonic texture" in terms of musical texture.

As a result of these modifications, the timbre and sound system, which are among the most important factors that determine the character of traditional music, also changed. Especially when luthiers started to manufacture sazs that are suitable for picking with no regard to pickless playing caused the public to adopt picking techniques in time. However the fact that this picking perception and musical approach were adopted in a large structure such as Yurttan Sesler without thoroughly investigating their origins, localities, and regional validities are the main reasons of the radio performance and perception in which heavy balances are felt, but the 30 For detailed information, see: Chapter 2.

Later, other choirs that were established based on this choir's influence34, and Turkish Music conservatories were also influenced by these choices. Some folk artists found the opportunity to embark on solo careers in the emerging market conditions.

Saz also had an important role in the arabesk genre, which arose from "market music. Arabesk music gave rise to a new performance style where saz performance diverged from traditional performance styles, and where techniques from buzuk, bouzouki, Spanish guitar, and later even sitar were adapted to picking styles. The electric saz was an instrument inspired by the electric guitar, "invented" by mounting pickups to the saz. It was used in the "Anatolian Rock" genre, but was quickly adopted by arabesk musicians due to its ability to adapt to different performances, and by wedding musicians of Anatolia due to its high volume.

The timbre, volume level, playing style and shape of this instrument was not similar to saz, and was not generally adopted by traditional folk music performers. By the s, developments such as the polarization and congregationism in the society directly affected folk music and saz performances. In parallel, the musical tradition of this structure, which is one of its most special tools of expression, came to be heard in Turkey with its qualities.

This development was later 35 A tuning system. For detailed information, see: Chapter 2. Even today, similar albums are produced although the performance and arrangement structures vary according to the day's conditions. The inclusion of saz in the Arabesk movement that was popularized in these years, and the widespread use of electric saz, caused "non-traditional" modifications to saz picking techniques.

Pickless playing techniques that are performed on traditional, small saz forms in rural areas reflected on the large saz form used in urban music in such a musical environment, and during a long process from the s to today. This process is directly relevant to our subject, and will be examined in detail in Chapter 2. In conclusion, today there are many different approaches to playing saz. For example the term "long-neckist," is generally used by performers who prefer the short-necked saz.

As we discussed in the previous chapter, it is believed that the main playing style of the saz is pickless, and that pick playing style began after the adoption of metallic strings Parlak, All the strings of the saz are strummed in the PT, and this technique also consists of various strumming techniques.

According to Parlakp. The typical position for PT on the saz is the position in which the right hand is over the joint area where the neck and the body come together. It signifies two hand tapping technique. Only the inner faces of the right hand fingers are used to produce sound. Additionally, in contrast to PT, sounds are not produced by strumming all the strings but by plucking only one or two strings with right hand fingers.

Although the use of pickless playing techniques, which were almost extinct before the s, and entered a period of "rediscovery" in the s, increased in our day, pick playing technique is still the dominant playing style. Figure 2. Tezene is a Turkish word, and is also colloquially called tazane, tarzene, teyzine, tazane, etc.

Pick- playing technique had its golden age in the 20th Century, and was developed by many performers in the era to reach its current form. Although it varies according to personal preferences or the desired timbre, in pick-playing the pick is held approximately in the middle of the body Fig.

Today, however, this term is being used to encompass all sazs, especially in Anatolia, after sazs from different musical cultures of Anatolia began to be used in professional performances on stage or in the studio.

It is possible to encounter the members of the saz family in Anatolia's various musical cultures under various names. While there are sazs that are named after their number of strings, dimensions and tuning systems, some sazs have unique names. One of the important factors in naming sazs is the number of strings. The term cura means "small", and is used to identify small-sized sazs, and other instruments such as the zurna clarionin reference to their sizes.

The term baz is used to identify large sazs. Another naming convention is based on the material from which the saz is made. These sazs 46 Kabak : gourd EN.

This is a saz made of gourd, which is usually played by kids, but that also has adult versions. These sazs differ from each other in every way. Some of these sazs have a body shaped like an axe and are called baltasaz49 Parlak,p. This is the saz family that lives among the Anatolian people. As an extension of the desire of "playing ensemble music" of the choirs that were established after the Republic such as "Yurttan Sesler"the saz family was reconsidered, and a size-based standardization was sought.

All three of them have very different sazs, in terms of structure, dimensions, fretting They can't come together to play a song decently. Even if they do, it doesn't sound good, they can't play harmoniously. We want to join many instruments in order to establish a large band called Yurttan Sesler Ensemble. Only you can help us in this. This made him very happy. I proceeded to make a list of what he wanted. This ensured that the standards were immediately adopted all around the country.

This usage was first adopted in the radio, then in the conservatories influenced by the radio. However this theoretical standardization did not exactly fit the practice due to the accompaniment approach that later developed based on the voice timbre of vocalists Parlak, While some of these sazs were only used personally, others became popular and socially adopted.

One of the most important examples of these popular sazs is the form of saz to which electro-magnetic pickups were mounted, called electrosaz, which was adopted in popular music. The idea of using more than three rows of strings on the saz is a very new development.

This development picked the interest of artists who perform "electrosaz pick-playing techniques," or "pickless saz playing techniques," and separately developed in both groups, leading to the emergence of sazs with different qualities.

Regarding the electrosaz, the first development was the emergence of 4- or 5-stringed sazs in order to be able to use sounds with lower pitches in the melody.

Versions of these sazs with eight, ten, etc. Another recent development in saz is the emergence of instruments that are built by joining two or more sazs. The inventor of these sazs that offer great advantages, especially in stage performances, is unknown. The primary material was horse hair. The second most important string material after horse hair was animal gut. These strings were obtained by processing the guts of various animals such as squirrels, sheep, wolves and donkeys, and were too delicate to be played with picks.

Another material used before metal was silk. The silken strings are observed in the Ozbek and Uyghur dutars Central Asian saz derivatives even today. The use of metallic strings on the saz was revolutionary, and changed not only the timbre of the saz, but also its playing style. The initial preferences for metallic strings were brass and copper strings, but these relatively weak strings were replaced by steel strings. Copper strings are still used in the tenbur, a widely played Iranian saz.

Parlak suggested that the metallic strings were first used in Anatolia, based on the level of development of structural forms and playing styles. The adaptation of metallic strings to saz caused the emergence of the concept of "pick," in the tradition of saz that was only played with fingers for centuries. While the approach of three rows of strings that was used in Anatolia for a long time still lives on in pickles played sazs, multiple strings began to be used for each row after the pick was adopted.

These methods were applied to increase the volume of the saz's sound, beginning with 2 strings for each row, then sazs with 3 9 stringed sazeven 4 12 stringed saz strings to a row, or sazs with different string combinations appeared.

These practices were later abandoned since they made performance more difficult, and the number of strings was decreased Parlak,p. Cim teli was the name given to 0. The use of these strings that were not resistant against pick strikes and that were easily affected by temperature changes was abandoned in time. Another important change in the saz's timbre occurred with the adoption of strings called "bam string" instead of yellow strings.

Bam string is produced by winding gilded wire over steel strings. The gauges of all three materials are very important. Some bam strings are as thick as 1 mm.

These strings are also called bambam and are usually used in sazs with large bodies, such as the divan saz. The bam string is usually preferred in the string raw that is responsible for the dem drone function.

Having the dem sound in the lowest part is a requirement, especially for zurna performers of Anatolia.


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